“Hydrophilic monomer, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA),

“Hydrophilic monomer, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), and hydrophobic monomer, 3-(methacryloyloxy)propyltris(trimethylsiloxy)silane (MPTS) were

grafted on vulcanized rubber surface with simultaneous electron beam irradiation. Degree of graft polymerization was evaluated by composition ratio of imparted graft chain against trunk rubber. The composition ratio could be controlled by the monomer concentration and the irradiation dose. Grafted rubbers were evaluated by surface roughness and contact angle. Graft polymerization of HEMA decreased the contact angle from 93 to similar to 70 degrees without considerable change of the surface roughness. In selleck screening library the case of MPTS, the contact angle increased approximately to 108 degrees. The relationship between the contact angle of water on the modified surface and the friction at the moment of semidry was investigated as an application of the resulting rubber to wiper blade. The increase of the contact angle owing to the grafting of hydrophobic MPTS led to the decrease of Delta mu (deference between semi-dry state and dry friction). Instead, the decrease of the contact angle by grafting of hydrophilic

HEMA resulted in the increase of Delta mu. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117: 2825-2830, 2010″
“Cell localisation in the matrix microstructure of fermented food is important for microbial activity and ripening. To evaluate the importance of physicochemical factors in these phenomena, the physicochemical behaviour of four strains of lactic acid bacteria were Rabusertib investigated after inoculation of raw milk or milk fractions. To discriminate between physicochemical and metabolic properties, media were (i) rapidly click here acidified to avoid cell division or (ii) bacteria were allowed to ferment milk. To evaluate the impact of milk components, cells were dispersed in protein or fatty globule fractions. From two Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis

strains selected from their different surface properties investigated in previous studies, after rapid acidification one was encountered in fatty globules and protein gels whereas the other was found in serum and on the surface of globules. After fermentation, the first one formed colonies in the lipid phase or next to it in the whey and the second formed colonies in the protein gel. Strains forming long chains (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) were always found in contact with fatty globules, where they developed. Our results suggest that localisation and subsequent spatial colonisation depend on the physicochemical properties of cell surfaces, on the structure in chains as well as on the metabolic ability to develop on proteins or lipids. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

Individuals with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) now routinely survive to reproductive age and beyond.

A case of MFH of the maxillary sinus in a 67-year-old male patien

A case of MFH of the maxillary sinus in a 67-year-old male patient is reported including imaging and pathological features. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: e99-e104)”
“Overdamped NbTiN Josephson junctions CHIR-99021 cell line with Ti-TiN bilayered normal-metal barrier are proposed for metrological applications. Binary arrays consisting of 32 768 NbTiN/Ti-TiN/NbTiN junctions were fabricated

for quantum voltage standards, and a Shapiro step at 1 V with the step height of about 0.5 mA was generated at around 8 K. The Ti layer was added to protect the base NbTiN electrode from nitrogen plasma during the deposition of the TiN layer. While the critical current I(c) and the junction resistance R(n) are mainly dominated by the thickness of the TiN barrier, I(c) can be also adjusted by changing the thickness of the Ti barrier to maximize the

operating margin for voltage standard circuits. An optimization of the NbTiN film in terms of film stress is also described for fabrication of circuits containing such a large number of junctions. (c) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3517475]“
“Polymer-filled nonwoven membranes were prepared by filling the open pores of nylon nonwovens with poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) (PAMPS). PAMPS was synthesized via radical polymerization and crosslinked to prevent its dissolution in water. PAMPS-filled nylon nonwoven membranes showed enhanced dimensional stability and mechanical properties when compared with PAMPS membranes without nonwovens. The conductivities of PAMPS-filled nylon nonwovens were slightly lower selleck than those of PAMPS membranes. Compared with PAMPS membranes without

nonwoven hosts, both linear and crosslinked PAMPS-filled nylon nonwoven membranes exhibited lower vapor permeabilities for water, methanol, acetone, and dimethyl methylphophonate (DMMP). In addition, crosslinked PAMPS-filled nonwoven membranes presented high permselectivity on DMMP over water, which is critical for chemical protection application. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 2568-2575, 2011″
“Metaplastic Warthin tumor is a rarely seen subtype of Warthin tumor. Selleckchem STI571 It can resemble squamous carcinomas histopathologically, because it contains atypical squamous cells on the necrotic surface. Making a diagnosis can become easier by knowing this entity of Warthin tumor well and by correlating the radiologic findings with pathology. In this case presentation, imaging features of a metaplastic Warthin tumor are presented together with its histopathologic findings. When a solid mass with peripheral enhancing cystic-necrotic component and well defined contour and capsule that shows early enhancement and washout is identified with imaging methods in parotid gland, metaplastic Warthin tumor should be indicated in the differential diagnosis before the histopathologic evaluation.

The electron mobility of the undoped GaN film was 178 cm(2)/V s a

The electron mobility of the undoped GaN film was 178 cm(2)/V s and the value greatly increased to 524 cm(2)/V s by

doping a small amount of Al (up to 0.45% in concentration) into the GaN layer. A further increase in the Al concentration learn more resulted in a degradation of the electron mobility, which decreased to 138 cm(2)/V s when the Al concentration was 0.82%. The output power of a side view light emitting diode (LED) with the Al-doped GaN layer was estimated to be 15.76 mW at a forward current of 20 mA, which improved by 19% compared to that of a conventional LED. These results show that a small amount of Al incorporation into a GaN layer improves the electrical and optical properties of the layer, which are attributed to the reduction of Ga vacancy

and associated defects, such as dislocations.”
“Objectives: This review aimed to summarize the current evidence on the safety/efficacy of cell therapy for the treatment of tendinopathy.

Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using various databases with relevant keywords. Both original animal and human controlled studies, covering any cell type for the treatment of naturally occurring, overuse or collagenase-induced tendinopathy, and with full text available, were included. The quality of all included studies was assessed. Relevant data on study design, safety and efficacy outcomes were extracted.

Results: Eleven original studies were selected, of which nine were pre-clinical studies using the collagenase-induced tendon injury model and two were clinical studies. Types of cells, scaffolds, dosages and treatment regimens see more used varied. All the studies performed cell injection once. A critical appraisal of the included studies showed sub-optimal blinding. Cell therapy was generally reported to be safe, except minor complications, IPI-549 chemical structure in the short term. Cell therapy was reported to improve tendon architecture in histology but equivocal finding

was observed in sonographic/MRI examination, functional and biomechanical performance.

Conclusions: The current evidence was inadequate to make a conclusion whether cell therapy was safe and effective. Further study with adequate sample size and follow-up time, appropriate controls and optimal blinding is required. Confirmation of finding, using different tendinopathy animal models, by systematic investigation of the effects of cell sources, dosages and regimens on the outcomes, and by the inclusion of tendon pain assessment in both animals and human, is recommended. Research on the mechanisms of how cell worked in tendon repair is essential. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Semin Arthritis Rheum 42:651-666″
“By electrolysis of the N,N-dimethylformamide solution, an attempt was made to simultaneously deposit diamondlike carbon (DLC) films on both surfaces of an aluminum (Al) substrate.

Publication bias was not observed The current study did not supp

Publication bias was not observed. The current study did not support any association between the DD genotype and VTE. The pooled odds ratio (ORp) was 1.206; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.951-1.531; P = .123. Similar results were obtained when the effects of the D allele were assumed to be dominant (DD and ID vs II; ORp = 1.127, 95% CI, 0.902-1.409). Our data do not support the inclusion of ACE I/D polymorphism testing in clinical thrombophilia workups until more compelling data are made available.”
“Intimate relationships exist between form and function of plants, determining many processes governing

their growth and development. However, in most crop simulation models that have been created to simulate plant growth and, for example, predict biomass production, plant structure has been neglected. In this study, a detailed simulation model of growth and development Torin 2 of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) is presented, which integrates degree of tillering and canopy

architecture with organ-level light interception, photosynthesis, and AZD5153 molecular weight dry-matter partitioning. An existing spatially explicit 3D architectural model of wheat development was extended with routines for organ-level microclimate, photosynthesis, assimilate distribution within the plant structure according to organ demands, and organ growth and development. Outgrowth of tiller buds was made dependent on the ratio between assimilate supply and demand of the plants. Organ-level photosynthesis, biomass production, and bud outgrowth were simulated satisfactorily. However, to improve crop simulation results more efforts are needed mechanistically to model other major plant physiological processes such as nitrogen uptake and distribution,

tiller death, and leaf senescence. Nevertheless, the work presented here is a significant step forwards towards a mechanistic functional-structural plant model, which integrates plant architecture with key plant processes.”
“Aim: To examine the relationship between some blood parameters and mild kidney dysfunction. Participants and Methods: A total of 719 Italian men aged 42 to 74 years from a population-based selleck compound survey carried out in the town of Bollate (Milan). General linear models were used to examine the variations in plasma fibrinogen, hematocrit, platelet counts, mean platelet volume, and uric acid across levels of kidney function (estimated on the basis of glomerular filtration rate [GFR]), adjusting for age, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity (evaluated as TV watching, engaging in sport practice, and walking/cycling), waist circumference, arm muscle area, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease history, and nonsteroid anti-inflammatory, diuretic, and antihypertensive drug use.

The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results provide evidence tha

The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results provide evidence that Ag ions are mainly in the monovalent state and incorporated into the ZnO lattice at Zn2+ sites. It was found from the UV-visible spectra that the bandgap of ZnO decreases due to Ag doping. Excellent enhancement of luminescence properties in the green band is observed in Ag-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The origin of this

enhancement was discussed. It was demonstrated that oxygen vacancies and a spin-split impurity band are the key factors for deep level emissions. We believe that the present approach is a very simple but effective one for synthesis of novel ZnO complex micro/nanostructures, and these flowerlike Ag-doped ZnO nanocrystals may have good prospects in scientific and industrial applications. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3549826]“
“Little is known about the proportion this website of renal transplant candidates who are considered ineligible by the transplant center, the reasons of their ineligibility and their survival during dialysis. In this retrospective, single-center study of 445 adult

patients referred between 2001 and 2006, 36 (8%) were deemed ineligible for medical contraindications. The leading reason was cardiovascular (CV) (75%), specifically aorto-iliac, and/or limb vessels atheromatosis or calcifications; ischemic heart disease; or a combination thereof. Nine patients had other contraindications that were absolute for three of them; six patients displayed a combination of relative contraindications. selleck chemicals When compared to eligible patients (N = 409), those ineligible were significantly older (60 yr vs. 48), more often diabetics (50% vs. 15%), obese (39% vs. 17%) suffering from coronary artery disease (53% vs. 11%) and peripheral arterial disease (86% vs. 11%). Their primary nephropathy find more was more often diabetic and/or hypertensive/nephroangiosclerosis (61% vs. 23%), and their median dialysis vintage prior to evaluation was longer (29 months vs. 10, p < 0.0001). The actuarial survival of ineligible patients was significantly lower than that of

eligible patients (at five yr: 53% vs. 88%). Adequate control of CV risk factors before dialysis and early referral for transplantation might help to improve eligibility of renal transplant candidates.”
“Quasistatic measurements of room-temperature anelastic relaxation were used to characterize the properties of shear transformation zones (STZs) in amorphous Al(86.8)Ni(3.7)Y(9.5) in the dilute limit. Using a combination of nanoindenter cantilever bending and mandrel bend relaxation techniques, anelastic relaxation was measured over times ranging from 1 s to 3 x 10(7) s. Direct spectrum analysis yields relaxation-time spectra, which display seven distinct peaks. The results were analyzed using a linear dashpot-and-spring model, combined with transition-state theory, to yield several STZ properties.


The H 89 supplier females seek an overwintering place in August. Those that overwinter together with humans may act as vectors. They have to stay in their overwintering place from September to May because of the cold climate. The temperatures between June and July determine the number of malaria cases during the following transmission season. This did not, however, have an impact on the long-term trend of malaria. The change in animal husbandry and reclamation of wetlands may also be excluded as a possible cause for the

decline of malaria. The long-term social changes, such as land consolidation and decreasing household size, showed a strong correlation with the decline of Plasmodium.

Conclusion: The indigenous malaria in

Finland faded out evenly in the whole country during 200 years with limited or no counter-measures or medication. It appears that malaria in Finland was basically a social disease and that malaria trends were strongly linked to changes in human behaviour. Decreasing household size caused fewer interactions between families and accordingly decreasing recolonization possibilities for Plasmodium. The permanent drop of the household size was the precondition for a permanent eradication of malaria.”
“ObjectivePain medicine still lacks mechanism-specific biomarkers to guide diagnosis and treatment, and defective top-down modulation is an important factor in the pathophysiology of chronic AZD8055 mouse pain conditions. Using modern analytical tools and advanced multivariate statistical analysis, the aim of this study was to revisit two classical potential biomarkers of pro- and anti-nociception in humans (substance P and beta-endorphin), focusing particularly on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

DesignCross-sectional, BIIB057 solubility dmso comparative, observational study.

SubjectsPatients with chronic, post-traumatic and/or post-surgical, neuropathic pain refractory to conventional treatment (N=15) and healthy controls (N=19) were included.

MethodsSamples were taken from CSF and blood, and levels of substance P and beta-endorphin

were investigated using a Luminex technology kit.

ResultsWe found low levels of beta-endorphin in the CSF of neuropathic pain patients (6611pcg/mL) compared with healthy controls (115 +/- 14pcg/mL) (P=0.017). Substance P levels in the CSF did not differ (20 +/- 2pcg/mL, 26 +/- 2, P=0.08). However, our multivariate data analysis showed that belonging to the patient group was associated with low levels of both substances in the CSF. A higher correlation between the levels of beta-endorphin and substance P in CSF was found in healthy controls than in patients (r(s)=0.725, P<0.001 vs r(s)=0.574, P=0.032).

ConclusionsPatients with chronic neuropathic pain due to trauma or surgery had low levels of beta-endorphin in the CSF. We speculate that this could indicate a defective top-down modulation of pain in chronic neuropathic pain.

Objective: We studied the effect of APOE genotype disclosure for

Objective: We studied the effect of APOE genotype disclosure for AD risk assessment on dietary supplement use in adults with a family history of AD.

Design: Autophagy inhibitor As part of a secondary analysis of data from the second Risk Evaluation and Education for Alzheimer’s Disease Study, we examined the effect of genotype disclosure on health-behavior changes among 272 unaffected first-degree relatives of persons

with AD.

Results: Overall, 16% of all participants reported a change in dietary supplement use after AD risk assessment. Participants who learned that they had at least one copy of the risk-increasing epsilon 4 allele (epsilon 4+) had 4.75 times the odds of reporting a change in dietary supplement use than did their counterparts who had an absence of the risk-increasing epsilon 4 allele (epsilon 4-) (95% CI: 2.23, 10.10; P < 0.0001) after adjustment for age, sex, race, baseline supplement use, randomization arm, and educational level. There were no significant differences between APOE epsilon 4+ and epsilon 4- participants in changes in overall diet, exercise, or medications.

Conclusions: In this sample of first-degree relatives receiving genetic susceptibility testing for AD, an APOE epsilon 4+ genotype status was positively associated

with dietary supplement use after risk disclosure. selleck products Such changes occurred despite the absence of evidence that supplement use reduces the risk of AD. Given the expansion of DTC genetic tests, this study highlights the need for future studies in disease risk communication. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:1402-7.”
“BACKGROUND: Pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection is relatively common after lung transplantation, but the effect on mortality remains undetermined. this website Herein we describe our experience with pulmonary NTM infection after lung transplantation and hypothesized that non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection after lung transplantation would be associated with increased mortality.

METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 201 primary lung transplant recipients transplanted between January 2000 and August 2006. Serial bronchoscopies with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy were performed according to a surveillance

protocol and when clinically indicated. The diagnosis NTM infection was established by a positive NTM culture in a bronchoalveolar lavage sample or in at least two separate expectorated sputum samples. NTM infections were further classified as “”disease”" or “”colonization,”" based on whether or not NTM infection patients developed symptoms and characteristic radiographic findings.

RESULTS: Thirty-six (18%) recipients were diagnosed with pulmonary NTM infection at a median of 97 days post-transplantation: 9 were classified as NTM disease and the remaining 27 as NTM colonization cases. Single lung transplant was a significant risk factor for NTM infection (HR 2.25, p = 0.02). NTM colonization was a risk factor for NTM disease (HR 8.39, p = 0.003).

The photocrosslinking property and photopolymerizing ability of t

The photocrosslinking property and photopolymerizing ability of the epoxy resin were studied in film and solution state using UV spectroscopy. The effect of photo acid generator and sensitizer on photosensitivity of the resin was also investigated. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 111: 2340-2344, 2009″
“Glycation and oxidative PRIMA-1MET mouse stress lead to formation of compounds

that have several biological effects and contribute to the development of the complications of diabetes mellitus. All steps of glycoxidation generate oxygen free radicals, some of them in common with lipid peroxidation pathways. Some oxidation or lipid peroxidation products may bind to proteins and amplify glycoxidation-generated lesions. The aim of this study was to measure glycation and lipid peroxidation parameters and examine the relationship between them in patients with EPZ-6438 type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) with (+DC) and without (-DC) diabetic complications.

Fifty patients with DM1 aged from 7-19 years and with duration of DM1 (DD) at least 5 years were included. Twenty-four patients were -DC and 26 were +DC. Twelve healthy children formed a control group. There were significantly higher values of fructosamine (FAM), HbA(1c), serum advanced glycation endproducts (s-AGEs) and lipid peroxides (LPO) in the +DC group compared with -DC, and significantly higher values of HbA(1c), FAM and LPO in both diabetic groups than in controls. The s-AGEs level in the -DC group was similar to that in controls. In the total diabetic group, regardless of DC, there was a significant negative correlation between LPO and HDL-C (r = -0.379; p <0.05), and a positive correlation between LPO and triacylglycerol (TAG) (r = 0.852; p << 0.05), FAM (r = 0.414; p <0.05) and s-AGEs (r = 0.454; p <0.05). In the +DC group LPO correlated negatively with HDL-C (r BI 2536 order = -0.392, p <0.05) and positively with TAG (r = 0.848; p << 0.05), FAM (r = 0.457; p = 0.02), and s-AGEs (r = 0.516, p = 0.02), whereas in the -DC group LPO correlated only with HDL-C (r = -0.441;

p = 0.03) and TAG (r = 0.769; p << 0.05). We demonstrated a linkage between enhanced formation of AGEs and lipid peroxidation products and the presence of diabetic complications. Thus, the overproduction of glycation and lipid peroxidation products may take part in DC development as early as in childhood and adolescence.”
“Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) is one of the surgical procedures for use to try to reduce subsequent degenerative joint disease or modify the progress of hip dysplasia in young dogs. Joint force and pressure distribution were changed by this procedure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out whether the remodeling of proximal femur exists or not after TPO in dysplastic dogs. Ten femora from five young dysplastic mongrel dogs, treated unilaterally with TPO using 20 degrees canine pelvic osteotomy plates, were used.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 389 massively transfused

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 389 massively transfused trauma patients. Regression methods and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to test the association between admission platelet count and 24-hour mortality and units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) transfused.

Results: For every 50 x 10(9)/L increase in admission

platelet count, the odds of death decreased 17% at 6 hours (p = 0.03; 95% confidence selleck screening library interval [CI], 0.70-0.99) and 14% at 24 hours (p = 0.02; 95% CI, 0.75-0.98). The probability of death at 24 hours decreased with increasing platelet count. For every 50 x 10(9)/L increase in platelet count, patients received 0.7 fewer units of blood within the first 6 hours (p = 0.01; 95% CI, -1.3 to -0.14) and one less unit of blood within the first 24 hours (p = 0.002; 95% CI, -1.6 to -0.36). Nirogacestat manufacturer The mean number of units of PRBCs transfused within the first 6 hours and 24 hours decreased with increasing platelet count.

Conclusions: Admission platelet count was inversely correlated with 24-hour mortality and transfusion of PRBCs. A normal platelet count may be insufficient after severe trauma, and as a result, these

patients may benefit from a lower platelet transfusion threshold. Future studies of platelet number and function after injury are needed.”
“Background: The neurally mediated syncope (NMS) is sustained by complex cardiac and vascular reflexes, acting on and amplified by central autonomic loops, resulting in bradycardia and hypotension.

Methods: We evaluated by ultrasound the flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and the nitrate-mediated dilation (NMD) in 17 patients with NMS, induced by drug-free tilt test in 6 subjects and by nitrate-potentiated tilt test in the other 11 cases; the syncope was classified as vasodepressive (VD) in 8 cases, cardioinhibitory (CI) in 7, and mixed in 2.

Results: The FMD was not different from controls (10.2 +/- 4.5 vs 11.4 +/- 3.9, P = ns), with normal recovery times; the NMD was greater in fainting subjects than in controls (26.7 +/- 7.3 vs 19.0 +/- 3.6, P < 0.05), with higher values in VD

than in CI syncope Small molecule library nmr (31.1 +/- 7.0 vs 23.1 +/- 5.0, P = ns); compared to controls, subjects with NMS showed normal recovery times after FMD but longer recovery times after nitrate administration (13.0 +/- 5.6 vs 6.3 +/- 0.7 minutes, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: The evaluation of endothelial function supports evidence that NMS is characterized by a marked and sustained endothelial-independent vasodilation, in the presence of a normal FMD; vascular hyperreactivity in response to nitrate administration is particularly overt in vasodepressive syncope and can explain the high rate of responses to nitrate administration during tilt test.”
“Aims: We evaluated a putative central inhibitory effect of intravesical botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) on the activity of lumbosacral spinal neurons in a chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) model of bladder overactivity.

04 and p = 0 003, respectively) The presence of chronic otitis f

04 and p = 0.003, respectively). The presence of chronic otitis findings were significantly increased in both groups (p = 0.00). Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that mastoid cell volumes tend to be larger at the contralateral side of the severe septum deviations.”
“BACKGROUND: Fructooligosaccharides

are important check details sweeteners produced by sucrose biotransformation. Although fructooligosccharides production has been reported widely, most studies have been carried out at laboratory level. This study evaluates semibatch and continuous fructooligosaccharides production by Aspergillus sp. N74 at bench scale in a mechanically agitated airlift.

RESULTS: ABT-263 Sucrose biotransformation to fructooligosaccharides was carried out with biomass harvested after 24 or 48 h of culture. For 6.21 +/- 0.33 or 9.66 +/- 0.62 g biomass dry weight L(-1), the highest FOS yields were obtained at batch operating 62.1 and 66.4% after 26 or 6 h of reaction, respectively. Reduction in fructooligosaccharides yield was observed for both biomass concentrations at semibatch operating, while a comparable yield was obtained during continuous operating (62.1% for 6.21 +/- 0.33 g L(-1) and a dilution rate 0.016 s(-1), and 62.8% for 9.66 +/- 0.62 g L(-1) and a dilution rate 0.032 s(-1)). Nevertheless, 1-kestose formation was favored with biomass harvested

after 24 h under any operating mode.

CONCLUSION: Biomass concentration, reaction time and operating mode have a notable effect on fructooligosaccharides yield and composition. 1-kestose, Selleckchem MLN4924 the most valuable fructooligosaccharide, was obtained in greatest proportion at a biomass concentration 6.21 +/- 0.33 g L(-1). Under the different operating modes, Aspergillus

sp. N74 mycelia and the reactor described are presented as a feasible alternative for scaling up fructooligosaccharides production. (C) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry”
“ObjectiveTo determine the effect of perinatal exposure to low doses of genistein and/or vinclozolin on submandibular salivary gland (SSG) development in juvenile and adult male rats and to establish a link with sweet preference.

Material and MethodsFemale rats received orally (1mgkg(-1) body weight/day) genistein and vinclozolin, alone or in combination, from the first gestational day up to weaning. Sweet preference was assessed at weaning and in adulthood in male offspring; submandibular glands were then collected to study the morphogenesis and mRNA expression of steroid receptors, growth factors and taste related proteins.

ResultsExposure to genistein and/or vinclozolin resulted in a higher saccharin intake on postnatal day 25 (P<0.05) linked to a higher number of pro-acinar cells (P<0.01) and mRNA expression of progesterone receptor, growth factors and gustine (P<0.01).