“Association schemes were originally introduced by Bose an

“Association schemes were originally introduced by Bose and his co-workers in the design of statistical experiments. Since that point of inception, the concept has proved useful in the study of group actions, in algebraic graph theory, in algebraic coding theory, and in areas as far

afield as knot theory and numerical integration. This branch of the theory, viewed in this collection of surveys as the “commutative case”, has seen significant activity in the last few decades. The goal of the present survey is to discuss the most important new developments in several directions, VX-809 research buy including Gelfand pairs, cometric association schemes, Delsarte Theory, spin models and the semidefinite programming technique. The narrative follows a thread through this list of topics, this being the contrast between combinatorial symmetry and group-theoretic symmetry, culminating in Schrijver’s SDP bound for binary codes (based on group actions) and its connection

to the Terwilliger algebra (based on combinatorial symmetry). We propose this new role of the Terwilliger algebra in Delsarte Theory as a central topic for future work. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To estimate the valnemulin pharmacokinetic profile in a swine population and to assess a dosage Selleck GSI-IX regimen for increasing the likelihood of optimization. This study was, respectively, performed in 22 sows culled by p.o. administration and in 80 growing-finishing pigs by i.v. administration at a single Src inhibitor dose of 10mg/kg to develop a population pharmacokinetic model and Monte Carlo simulation. The relationships among the plasma concentration, dose, and time of valnemulin in pigs were illustrated as C-i,C-v=X-0(8.4191×10(-4) x e(-0.2371t) + 1.2788 x 10(-5) x e(-0.0069t)) after i.v. and C-p.o = X-0(-8.4964 x 10(-4) x e(-0.5840t) + 8.4195 x e(-0.2371t) +7.6869×10(-6)xe(-0.0069t)) after p.o. Monte Carlo simulation showed that T- bigger than MIC was more than 24h when a single daily dosage at 13.5mg/kg BW in pigs was administrated by p.o., and MIC was 0.031mg/L.

It was concluded that the current dosage regimen at 10-12mg/kg BW led to valnemulin underexposure if the MIC was more than 0.031mg/L and could increase the risk of treatment failure and/or drug resistance.”
“Dhanasekaran A, Bodiga S, Gruenloh S, Gao Y, Dunn L, Falck JR, Buonaccorsi JN, Medhora M, Jacobs ER. 20-HETE increases survival and decreases apoptosis in pulmonary arteries and pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 296: H777-H786, 2009. First published January 9, 2009; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.01087.2008.-20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is an endogenous cytochrome P-450 product present in vascular smooth muscle and uniquely located in the vascular endothelium of pulmonary arteries (PAs).

IMiDs are characterized by antitumoral and antiangiogenic activit

IMiDs are characterized by antitumoral and antiangiogenic activities, and they also induce the apoptosis of neoplastic cells. Thalidomide and its derivative lenalidomide have been proposed for the treatment of MDS because of their action on the immune mechanisms that appear to play an important role in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Conclusions: This article examines the pharmacology and molecular action of IMiDs and the evidence of their efficacy in treating patients with MDS in different risk classes. Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia, Vol. 13,

No. 1, 1-7 (c) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A practical continuous nitration process for 2,5-difluoronitrobenzene via nitration of p-difluorobenzene Selleckchem Blebbistatin with fuming nitric acid in 98% yield has been developed. The excellent yield AR-13324 nmr of this liquid/liquid biphasic reaction resulted from the advantages

of a continuous flow system. The 2.0 equiv sulfuric acid could be used three times directly with product yields in the range of 96-98%, and further recycling of waste acid could be partly achieved by adjusting the concentration of sulfuric acid. Reaction time could be brought down to 2 min by increasing the reaction temperature and thereby taking advantage of superior mass and heat transfer of this continuous flow system.”
“Background: Universal developmental surveillance programs aimed at early identification and targeted early intervention significantly

improve short-and long-term outcomes in children at risk of developmental disorders. However, a significant challenge remains in providing sufficiently rigorous research and robust evidence to inform policy and service delivery. This paper describes the methods of the ‘Watch Me Grow’ study that aims to maximise accurate early detection of children with developmental disorders through a partnership formed between policy makers, service providers and selleck screening library researchers. Methods/Design: A mixed methods study design was developed consisting of: (1) a qualitative study of parents and health service providers to investigate barriers and enablers of developmental surveillance; (2) recruitment of a birth cohort and their longitudinal follow-up to 18 months of age to: a) assess risk factors for not accessing existing developmental surveillance programs and b) estimate the prevalence of children identified with developmental risk; (3) comparison of surveillance outcomes with a reference standard at 18 months of age to assess the diagnostic test accuracy of existing and alternative developmental surveillance tools; and (4) comparison of developmental surveillance models to inform policy recommendations. Data linkage will be used to determine the uptake and representativeness of the study participant group versus non-participants.

One of the most significant is the development of multiple drug r

One of the most significant is the development of multiple drug resistance (MDR), which constitutes a serious clinical problem. The development of MDR relates to the expression of a major membrane pump, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Thus, currently one of the goals of experimental and clinical oncology is to decrease its activity. So far, many different P-gp inhibitors are available, but their efficacy is still questionable and requires further study.\n\nThe aim of our study was to assess an impact of classical P-gp inhibitors (verapamil and cyclosporin A) in the reversion of multidrug resistance in canine

mammary cancer cells. We used two cell lines isolated from mammary tumors and two cell lines isolated from their lung metastases. All of them showed P-gp over-expression confirmed using Real-time rt-PCR, Skan boolean AND R screening station and confocal microscopy. The FACS analysis showed SN-38 nmr that in three of the examined cell lines, treatment with verpamil/cyclosporin A was ineffective to reverse cancer chemoresistance. However, more studies in this field are required.”
“Optical coherence elastography (OCE) provides deformation or material properties, mapping of soft tissue. We aim to develop a robust speckle tracking OCE technique with improved resolution buy AZD3965 and accuracy. A digital image correlation (DIC)-based OCE technique was developed by combining

an advanced DIC algorithm with optical coherence tomography (OCT). System calibration and measurement error evaluation demonstrated that this DIC-based OCE technique had a resolution of similar to 0.6 mu m displacement and smaller than 0.5% strain

measurement in the axial scan direction. The measured displacement ranged from 0.6 to 150 mu m, obtained via phantom imaging. The capability of the DIC-based OCE technique, for differentiation of stiffness, was evaluated by imaging a candle gel phantom with an irregularly shaped stiff inclusion. OCE imaging of a chicken breast sample differentiated the fat, membrane, and muscle layers. Strain elastograms of an aneurysm sample showed heterogeneity of the tissue and clear contrast between the adventitia and media. These promising results demonstrated the capability of the DIC-based OCE for the characterization of the various components of the tissue sample. Further improvement of the system will be conducted to make this OCE technique a practical www.selleckchem.com/products/ferrostatin-1-fer-1.html tool for measuring and differentiating material properties of soft tissue. (C) The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI.”
“In this work, a study of the photoluminescence (PL) temperature dependence in quantum well GaAs/GaAsSb and double quantum well InGaAs/GaAsSb/GaAs heterostructures grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition with different parameters of GaAsSb and InGaAs layers has been performed.

Management of sleep disorders in PD patients usually starts with

Management of sleep disorders in PD patients usually starts with optimization of (dopaminergic) antiparkinsonian therapy followed by specific treatment of the sleep disturbances. Aside from these clinical issues of sleep disorders in PD, the concept of REM-sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) as an early sign for emerging neurodegenerative diseases is of pivotal interest for future research on biomarkers and neuroprotective treatment strategies of neurodegenerative diseases, and particularly PD.”
“Background: The efficacy of surgical resection

for gastric cancer liver metastases (GCLMs) is currently debated. Hitherto, no large-scale clinical studies have been conducted. Methods: This retrospective multicentre study analysed a database of consecutive patients with either synchronous or metachronous metastases who underwent surgical R0 resection for GCLM Duvelisib Angiogenesis inhibitor between 1990 and

2010. Clinical data were collected from five cancer centres in Japan. Survival curves were assessed, and clinical parameters were evaluated to identify predictors of prognosis. Results: A total of 256 patients were enrolled. The mean(s.d.) number of hepatic tumours resected was 20(24). The surgical mortality rate was 16 per cent. Median follow-up was 65 (range 1-261) months. Recurrences BKM120 nmr were detected in 192 patients (750 per cent). The median interval from hepatic resection to recurrence was 7 (range 1-72) months, and the dominant site of recurrence was the liver (724 per cent). Actuarial 1-, 3- and 5-year overall and recurrence-free survival rates were 773, 419 and 311 per cent, and 436, 324 and 301 per cent, respectively. Median overall and recurrence-free survival HM781-36B manufacturer times were 311 and 94months respectively. Multivariable analysis identified serosal invasion of the primary gastric cancer (hazard ratio (HR) 150; P=0012), three or more liver metastases (HR 233; P smaller than 0001) and liver tumour diameter

at least 5cm (HR 162; P=0005) as independent predictors of poor survival. Conclusion: Clinically resectable GCLM is rare, but strict and careful patient selection can lead to long-term survival following R0 surgical resection.”
“Deep tremor in subduction zones is thought to be caused by small repeating shear slip events on the plate interface with significant slow components(1-4). It occurs at a depth of about 30 kilometres and provides valuable information on deep plate motion and shallow stress accumulation on the fault plane of megathrust earthquakes. Tremor has been suggested to repeat at a regular interval(1,2), migrate at various velocities(4-7) and be modulated by tidal stress(6,8,9). Here I show that some time-invariant interface property controls tremor behaviour, using precise location of tremor sources with event duration in western Shikoku in the Nankai subduction zone, Japan. In areas where tremor duration is short, tremor is more strongly affected by tidal stress and migration is inhibited.

In contrast, ADX61623 did not block estrogen production This dem

In contrast, ADX61623 did not block estrogen production. This demonstrates for the first time, biased antagonism at the FSHR To determine if ADX61623 blocked FSH induction of follicle selleck chemicals development in vivo, a bioassay to measure follicular development and oocyte production in immature female rats was validated. ADX61623 was not completely effective in blocking FSH induced follicular development in vivo at doses up to 100 mg/kg as oocyte production and ovarian weight gain were only moderately reduced. These data illustrate that FSHR couples to multiple signaling pathways in vivo. Suppression of one pool of FSHR uncouples Gas and cAMP production,

and decreases progesterone production. Occupancy of another pool of FSHR sensitizes granulosa cells to FSH induced estradiol production. Therefore. ADX61623 is a useful tool to investigate further the mechanism of the FSHR signaling dichotomy. This may lead to a greater understanding

of the signaling infrastructure which enables estrogen biosynthesis and may prove useful in treating estrogen dependent disease. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of lower limb lymphedema after pelvic lymphadenectomy and radiotherapy to the pelvic lymph nodes in Napabucasin concentration patients with prostate cancer.\n\nMethods: Twenty-six patients underwent combined treatment for high-risk node-positive prostate cancer at Skane University Hospital between April 2008 and March 2011. The treatment consisted of extended pelvic lymphadenectomy followed by androgen deprivation therapy and radiotherapy.

The pelvic lymphnodes, prostate and seminal vesicles were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to an absorbed dose of 50 Gy followed by a brachytherapy (BT) boost of 2×10 Gy to the prostate only. Twenty-two patients accepted an invitation to a clinical examination with focus on lower limb swelling. The median time between the end of radiotherapy and examination was 2.2 years (range 1.2-4.1).\n\nResults: Six patients (27%) experienced grade 1 lymphedema and two patients (9%) grade 2 while none had grade 3 or 4 according to the CTC Common Toxicity Criteria scale 4.0. Three click here patients required treatment with compression stockings.\n\nConclusion: Brachytherapy and pelvic EBRT have a low incidence of lymphedema (at median 2.2 y after treatment) in patients with high-risk node-positive prostate cancer that have undergone pelvic lymph node dissection.”
“Nitric oxide (NO) plays a central role in the formation of tropospheric ozone, hydroxyl radicals, as well as nitrous and nitric acids. There are, however, large uncertainties around estimates of global NO emissions due to the paucity of data. In particular, there is little information on the rate of NO emission and its sensitivity to processes such as land use changes in dry environments.

NPs were characterised

NPs were characterised Cell Cycle inhibitor for size, surface charge, morphology, encapsulation efficiency and drug release. Cellular uptake of coumarin-6 NPs was examined in Caco-2 monolayers using confocal microscopy and central nervous system (CNS) delivery of loperamide HCl from the NPs was examined following intranasal administration in a mouse model.\n\nKey findings No difference in NP characteristics was observed, irrespective of degree of pegylation, except for the surface charge which increased with increasing PEG content. PLGA-PEG NPs were found to have increased cellular uptake in comparison to PLGA NPs. Interestingly,

this pattern was reflected in the CNS delivery of loperamide HCl in the mouse model.\n\nConclusion The results from this study show that PLGA-PEG NPs have the potential to act as

carriers for the noninvasive administration of therapeutic agents to the brain and possibly across other physiological barriers.”
“Antibacterial protection in the mucus is provided by antimicrobial compounds selleck chemical and till now few numbers of AMP and proteins were identified. Herein, mass spectral profiling of fresh mucus from farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry is investigated in order to survey the infective/healthy status of the mucus. We identify AMP peptides of 2891.7, 2919.45 and 2286.6 Da molecular weight respectively and characterize Chrysophsins in the mucus of Dicentrarchus labrax. These peptides display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against Gram-negative (Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations namely MICs < 0.5 mu M) and Gram-positive bacteria (MICs < 0.5 mu M) including Escherichia HDAC inhibitor coli and Bacillus subtilis. Furthermore, sensitivity to yeast Candida albicans is reported for the first time and shows interesting MICs of less than 2 mu M. We also demonstrate that the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonoicida is sensitive

to Chrysophsins (MICs ranging between 5 and 14 mu M). Our mucus molecular mass mapping developed approach allows for fast exploration of immune status. Our data provides evidence that Chrysophsins are secreted by immune cells and are released in mucus of non-challenged farmed European sea bass. These results suggest that Chrysophsins, secreted by gills of red sea bream, are an important widespread component of Teleostei defense against disease. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aims To determine 5-year mortality rates, following the diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes, in a large local cohort of individuals with new onset of Type 2 diabetes seen within a few weeks of diagnosis in a single, community-based education programme. Methods We reviewed referrals for people with Type 2 diabetes to our service over 5 years from 1999 to 2003 and determined, via regression analysis, which factors contributed significantly to mortality rates up to the end of 2007.

“The DNA repair gene O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransfera

“The DNA repair gene O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is frequently methylated in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to demonstrate that MGMT methylation may be one of the candidate mediators of field cancerization in the colon mucosa. Therefore, quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction was performed on tumor itself and additional Copanlisib in vitro samples of 5 and 10 cm away from the tumor in 40 CRC patients. Moreover, colon mucosa was examined from 30 cases with no evidence of cancer as a control. MGMT promoter methylation was present in 27.5% of colorectal tumor specimens. Tumors that showed

MGMT promoter methylation had substantial MGMT promoter methylation in their normal adjacent mucosa. The methylation was also observed in 36.36% (4/11) of normal samples with MGMT promoter methylation in the adjacent tumors, in 20.79% (6/29) of samples without MGMT methylation in the adjacent tumors, and in 6.66% (2/30) of control samples (p < 0.006 and p < 0.001 respectively). Finally, the mean of MGMT methylation levels was significantly higher in the cancerous group than in the control group (6.25 +/- 1.702 vs. 0.086 +/- 0.036, p < 0.001). SB525334 Some CRCs arise from a field defect defined by epigenetic inactivation of MGMT. Detection of such abnormality may ultimately

be useful in risk assessment for CRCs.”
“Treg can suppress autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, but their in vivo activity during suppression remains poorly characterized. In type 1 diabetes, Treg activity has been demonstrated in the pancreatic lymph node, but little has been studied in the pancreas, the site of autoimmune islet destruction. In this study we induced islet-specific Treg from the BDC-6.9 TCR transgenic mouse by activation of T cells in the presence of TGF-beta. These

Treg can suppress spontaneous diabetes as well as transfer of diabetes into NOD.scid mice by diabetic NOD spleen cells or activated BDC-2.5 TCR transgenic Th1 effector T cells. In the latter transfer model, we observed infiltration of the pancreas by both effector T cells and Treg, suggesting that Treg are active in the β-Nicotinamide cost inflammatory site and are not just restricted to the draining lymph node. Within the pancreas, we demonstrate that Treg transfer causes a reduction in the number of effector Th1 T cells and macrophages, and also inhibits effector T-cell cytokine and chemokine production. Although we found no role for TGF-beta in vitro, transfection of effector T cells with a dominant-negative TGF-beta receptor demonstrated that in vivo suppression of diabetes by TGF-beta-induced Treg is TGF-beta-dependent.”
“The aim of the study was to determine if vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. [VRE] carrying vanA and/or vanB genes were present in public marine beaches and a fishing pier [2001-2003, 2008] from Washington and California [2008].

4+/-12 1, respectively The post-course mean total knowledge scor

4+/-12.1, respectively. The post-course mean total knowledge score was 74.9+/-8.1, and the attitude score was 88.8+/-9.1 Improvement in knowledge and attitudes was significant (p<0.05).\n\nConclusion. Educational interventions for pharmacy students designed with careful attention to pedagogic principles can improve knowledge about evidence-based smoking-cessation strategies

and enhance positive attitudes to pharmacist roles in smoking cessation.”
“The current shortfall in effectiveness within conservation biology is illustrated by increasing interest in “evidence-based conservation,” whose proponents have identified the need to benchmark conservation initiatives against actions that lead to proven positive effects. The effectiveness of conservation policies, approaches,

and evaluation is under increasing scrutiny, and in these areas models MK-2206 order of Selleck BAY 80-6946 excellence used in business could prove valuable. Typically, conservation programs require years of effort and involve rigorous long-term implementation processes. Successful balance of long-term efforts alongside the achievement of short-term goals is often compromised by management or budgetary constraints, a situation also common in commercial businesses. “Business excellence” is an approach many companies have used over the past 20 years to ensure continued success. Various business excellence evaluations have been promoted that include concepts that could be adapted and applied in conservation programs. We describe a conservation excellence model that shows how scientific processes and results can be aligned with financial and organizational measures of success. We applied the model to two well-documented species conservation programs. In the first, the Po’ouli program, several aspects of improvement were identified, such as more authority for decision making in the

field and better integration of habitat management and population recovery processes. The second example, the black-footed ferret program, could have benefited from leadership effort to reduce bureaucracy and to encourage use of best-practice species recovery ASP2215 research buy approaches. The conservation excellence model enables greater clarity in goal setting, more-effective identification of job roles within programs, better links between technical approaches and measures of biological success, and more-effective use of resources. The model could improve evaluation of a conservation program’s effectiveness and may be used to compare different programs, for example during reviews of project performance by sponsoring organizations.”
“Octopus insularis inhabits shallow waters along the coast and oceanic islands of northeastern Brazil, where it is the main target of commercial fishing of octopuses. This study aims to investigate the hypothesis that the tropical O. insularis has a distinct gonadal development and reproductive features when compare to its congener O. vulgaris from the subtropical regions.

) The results of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)

). The results of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) studies on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of a total of 139

plasmids, cloned from 15 GVA isolates, suggested that the GVA isolates contained highly divergent variants. The plasmids from each GVA isolate that yielded different PCR-RFLP profiles were preferentially chosen for sequencing and were designated as variants. Furthermore, a phylogenetic study based on the analysis of the GVA coat protein genes and RNA silencing suppressor genes showed that the 40 variants obtained from the 15 GVA isolates represented 4 clades, designated as molecular groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. The variant-specific PCR detection results indicated that the parts of the tested grape plants were specifically infected by mild variants.”
“To learn more explore the effect of low-dose Cryptocaryon irritans infection

on growth, feeding and antiparasitic immunity of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), this study utilized C irritans at concentrations of 5500 theronts/fish (Group I, 1/10 of 96 h LC50) or 11,000 theronts/fish (Group II) to infect E. coioides weighing MK-8776 clinical trial 38 g on average at week 0, 2 and 4, respectively. Food consumption was recorded daily; the fish were weighed weekly; serum immobilizing titer (SIT), and acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lysozyme (LZM) activity were recorded every 2 weeks; the fish were treated with lethal see more dose (70,000 theronts/fish) of C. irritans in the 8th week and death number were recorded. The result shows that in the 1st week after the first infection, the fish’s weight gain (WG), length gain (LG), and specific growth rate (SGR) dropped as parasite dose increased, and WG, SGR values were negative; while, after the 2nd and the 3rd infection, no significant differences were detected among the three groups. These results indicated that the 1st infection affected the fish most, while the following infections were protected by some immunity. In the 3rd, 7th, and 8th week, condition factor (CF) increased with the increased

infectious dose, indicating that the parasite affected body length more than body weight. As the experiment went on, accumulated food consumption (AFC) of all three groups steadily grew (control bigger than Group I bigger than Group II). But on the 2nd day after the first infection, daily food consumption (DFC) of Group I and II significantly dropped, the decline of Group II was greater than that of Group 1, DFC recovered in the following week, with Group I earlier than Group II. After the 2nd infection, DFC of Group I and II dropped again, Group II still dropped more than Group I, and both groups recovered on the 3rd day after infection. The 3rd infection caused no significant difference in week food consumption (WFC). These results indicated that a higher dose of infection causes a greater drop in FC and a slower recovery.

A search of the literature yielded no comprehensive studies of me

A search of the literature yielded no comprehensive studies of medical problems of any single national contingent now serving in Afghanistan. A review of medical reports was made of the Polish Military Contingent in Operation Enduring Freedom from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011. Due to various reasons, 9.1% to 22.8% of all deployed Polish soldiers were unable to continue active duty. Acute respiratory infections and infectious and non-infectious gastrointestinal Temsirolimus ic50 disorders are the main causes of temporary inability to serve. An important problem in the

Polish soldiers is also dental health. Predicting the combat capability of Polish forces in Afghanistan and planning of its P5091 medical security requires the inclusion of the seasonality factor.\n\nMaterial/Methods: This study is a review of medical records of the Polish Military Contingent in Afghanistan, covering the period from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011, from records and data maintained by the Armed Forces Operational Command. (changes: IX and X). All cases were soldiers unable to continue active military duty due to health reasons.\n\nResults: The analysis shows that among the soldiers of PKW there occurred varied medical events, which directly or through further complications

were the cause of temporary inability to serve and which sometimes were the ultimate cause of an evacuation to the home country.\n\nConclusions: Acute respiratory infections and infectious and non-infectious gastrointestinal disorders were the main cause of temporary inability to serve.”
“Background: Assessment of peak oxygen

uptake (VO(2)) is recommended in the evaluation of patients with borderline pulmonary function as VO(2) is the strongest independent predictor of postoperative pulmonary complications. However, the measurement mTOR inhibitor of VO(2) requires expensive equipment not available in many medical facilities. The shuttle walking test (SWT) has been proposed to be used as a screening tool prior to performing a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Although an association exists between SWT distance and VO(2), only one small study directly measured VO(2) during the SWT. Objectives: The aim of this study was to further validate the VO(2)-SWT association by directly measuring VO(2) during SWT in a larger cohort of patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Fifty stable COPD patients with mild/severe disease were studied. Each patient performed an SWT while wearing a validated portable metabolic monitor. Results: Mean VO(2) (ml/kg/min) measured after each finalized minute of the SWT was (95% confidence interval): 6 (5-7), 9 (8-10), 11 (10-12), 13 (11-14), 15 (14-16), 18 (16-20) and 21 (18-26) for minutes 1-7, respectively. Patients that completed the British Thoracic Society-recommended 25 shuttles (5 min or 250 m) in the SWT had a mean VO(2) of 15 (14-16).