Mortality was equal but rate of MI was significantly higher in in

Mortality was equal but rate of MI was significantly higher in invasively treated pts. Comparison of results of invasive treatment in IH and treatment in NH: mortality was equally relatively low (2.5 and 2.7%, respectively) despite higher proportions of pts with old age,

history of HF, high GRACE score in NH; development of inhospital MI was significantly more frequent among invasively treated pts (7.9 vs 1.7%). Conclusion. Lower risk pts were admitted to IH and within Alvocidib cost IH lower risk pts were actually subjected to invasive treatment. Results of invasive reperfusion in STEACS were better than results of noninvasive treatment but effect of selection of lower risk pts can not be excluded. No positive effect of either invasive treatment or treatment in advanced H was revealed in NSTEACS.”
“We describe the use of an endoscopic modified Lothrop approach for clearance of an extensive sinonasal-type hemangiopericytoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses with bilateral Pevonedistat concentration frontal sinus involvement in a 44-year-old woman. The modified Lothrop approach is conventionally used to treat sinusitis, but with some slight modifications to the technique, it can also be used for tumor excision.”

predict the community structure in response to changing environmental conditions, it is necessary to know the species-specific reaction and relative impact strength of each disturbance. We investigated the coral communities in two sites, an exposed and a protected site, at Iriomote Island, Japan, from 2005 to 2008. During the study period, a cyclone and thermal stress were observed. All Acropora colonies, classified

into four morphologies (arborescent, tabular, corymbose, and digitate), were identified and tracked through time to calculate the annual mortality and growth rate. The mortality of all Acropora colonies in the protected site was lower than that in the exposed site during the period without disturbances. Extremely higher mortality due to bleaching was observed in tabular and corymbose Acropora, compared to other PCI-32765 growth forms, at the protected sites after thermal stress. In contrast, physical disturbance by a tropical cyclone induced the highest mortality in arborescent and digitate corals at the exposed site. Moreover, arborescent corals exhibited a remarkable decline 1 year after the tropical cyclone at the exposed site. The growth of colonies that survived coral bleaching did not decrease in the following year compared to previous year for all growth forms, but the growth of arborescent and tabular remnant corals at the exposed site declined severely after the tropical cyclone compared to previous year. The delayed mortality and lowered growth rate after the tropical cyclone were probably due to the damage caused by the tropical cyclone. These results indicate that the cyclone had a greater impact on fragile corals than expected.

4 Such photochemical reactions may occur when systemic pesticide

4. Such photochemical reactions may occur when systemic pesticides enter the plant cuticle. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Activation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling and matrix metalloproteinases are involved in hypertrophic scar (HS) formation. Compression therapy is known to be an effective approach

for the treatment of hypertrophic scarring; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We investigated the relationship GW786034 cost between TGF-beta signaling activation and matrix metalloproteinases in HS fibroblasts during mechanical compressive stress. Materials and methods: Two groups of skin tissue from HS and the nearby normal tissue were obtained from surgical patients and analyzed. Primary fibroblasts LY3023414 from the HS tissue and normal fibroblasts were isolated. Pressure therapy was recapitulated in an in vitro three-dimensional culture model, using mechanical stress produced with the Flexcell FX-4000C Compression Plus System. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to analyze the gene expression profiles in skin tissue

and cultured primary cells exposed to compressive stress. Knockdown of SMAD2 and SMAD3 was performed using their specific siRNA in HS and normal fibroblasts subjected to compressive stress, and gene expression was examined by qPCR and Western blot. Results: There was a significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and MMP9 in primary HS fibroblasts in response to mechanical stress. In contrast, the mRNA levels of collagen I and collagen III were downregulated in primary HS fibroblasts compared with those in the control cells. SiRNA-mediated knockdown of SMAD3 in the primary fibroblasts exposed to mechanical stress resulted in a decrease in the expression

of MMP9 compared to control cells. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that compressive stress upregulates MMP9 by SMAD3 but not by SMAD2.”
“Neurohormonal activation is prevalent in adults with congenital heart disease, but its relation to outcome remains unknown. NU7026 molecular weight B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) were measured prospectively in 49 patients with adult congenital heart disease, who were followed up for a median of 7.9 years (interquartile range 7.7 to 8.2). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine the relation of BNP and ANP concentrations to all-cause mortality. The mean age at baseline was 33.9 +/- 11.3 years, and 46.9% of patients were men. Most patients (77.5%) were symptomatic (20.4% had New York Heart Association class III), 10 (20.4%) were cyanotic, and 28 (57.1%) had systemic ventricular dysfunction (moderate or severe in 18.4%). The median concentration of BNP was 52.7 pg/ml (interquartile range 39.1 to 115.4) and of ANP was 47.4 pg/ml (interquartile range 19.7 to 112.8).

Here we review recent paediatric outcome data for T cell-depleted

Here we review recent paediatric outcome data for T cell-depleted HSCT, explore the role of serotherapy in conditioning regimens and look at future possibilities to improve outcome, including novel allodepletion techniques, suicide gene therapy and pathogen-specific immunotherapy.”
“Background/Aims: Vascular access-related bloodstream infection (BSI) is frequent among patients undergoing hemodialysis increasing their morbidity and mortality, but its occurrence across various dialysis centre types is not known. The aims of this study were to describe the incidence rates and assess the variability in BSI risk between dialysis

centre types and other centre-level variables. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 621 patients initiating hemodialysis in 7 Canadian dialysis centres. Cox regression models, where access type was continuously updated, were used to identify predictors of BSI occurrence. Results: During follow-up of the cohort (median age 3-MA in vitro 68.1 years, 41.7% female, and 76.7% initiating

with a central venous catheter, CVC), 73 patients check details had a BSI (rate: 0.21/1000 person-days). The BSI risk was not different in First Nation units (adjusted relative risk: 0.47, 95% confidence interval: 0.06-3.72) and teaching hospitals (1.33, 0.70-2.54) compared to community hospitals. No other centre-related variables were associated with the risk of BSI. Conclusion: We did not find differences in the BSI risk among dialysis unit types, or any other centre-related variables. The rates of BSI in our population were lower than those observed in other settings, but the high proportion of patients using CVCs is concerning. Copyright (C)

2009 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background: Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most effective antigen-presenting cells and key regulators of immune response. The immunoregulatory properties of DCs strongly depend on the microenvironment in which DCs have been matured and activated. Thyroid hormones are an important part of this environment and regulate many vital processes including growth and cellular metabolism. The aim of the study was LY3023414 supplier an analysis of the influence of thyroid hormones on blood DC subtypes ex vivo, including the surface expression of molecules involved in antigen presentation, costimulation, and maturation, as well as on functional properties of DCs in vitro.\n\nMethods: Blood samples for the quantitative and phenotypic analysis of peripheral blood plasmacytoid and myeloid DC subtypes were collected from thyroidectomized patients at two time points: (i) at the time of the so-called stimulation with endogenous thyrotropin-a group of hypothyroid patients after l-thyroxine (L-T(4)) withdrawal (pretreatment group)-and (ii) after 2 months of L-T(4) administration for thyrotropin suppression-a posttreatment group. The phenotype of DCs including HLA-DR, costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80, and CD86), and maturation marker CD83 was assessed by flow cytometry.

ConclusionsUsing data recorded

in general practic

\n\nConclusions\n\nUsing data recorded

in general practice records, it is possible to determine the rate of decompensation and the clinical progression of disease in people with cirrhosis.”
“Aim. We aimed to determine the relation of asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) levels to atherosclerotic vascular disease and inflammation markers in type 2 diabetes. Selleckchem Cediranib Methods. We recruited 50 type 2 diabetic patients with atherosclerosis, 50 type 2 diabetic patients without atherosclerosis, and 31 healthy control patients into our study. We obtained fasting serum and plasma samples and measured HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, C-peptide, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, hsCRP, fibrinogen,

erythrocyte sedimentation rate, total homocysteine, and ADMA levels. In addition, all of the patients were evaluated for carotid artery intima media thickness by ultrasound. We evaluated ADMA levels in healthy controls, diabetic patients with macrovascular complications, and diabetic patients without macrovascular complications and evaluated the relationship between ADMA levels and total homocysteine, inflammation markers, and macrovascular disease. Results. Mean ADMA values in non-MVD and control groups were significantly lower than in MVD group (0.39 +/- 0.16, 0.32 +/- 0.13, 0.52 +/- 0.23, P < 0.05, resp.). These three variables (carotid intima-media thickness, inflammatory markers, and ADMA levels) were significantly higher in diabetes group than control (P < 0.05). Conclusion. There is a relationship between ADMA and macrovascular disease in type 2 diabetes, Selleckchem GDC 973 but further studies

are needed to understand whether increased ADMA levels are a cause of macrovascular disease or a result of macrovascular disease.”
“We have recently reported that CXCR7, the alternate high affinity SDF-1 receptor, is induced during monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation, leading to increased macrophage phagocytosis linked to atherosclerosis. Statins, the most widely 5-Fluoracil molecular weight used medications for atherosclerosis, were shown to have pleiotropic beneficial effects independent of their cholesterol-lowering activity. This study aimed to determine whether induction of CXCR7 during macrophage differentiation is inhibited by statins and its significance on macrophage physiology. Here we show for the first time that atorvastatin dose-dependently inhibited CXCR7 mRNA and protein expression in THP-1 macrophages, without affecting the other SDF-1 receptor, CXCR4. Pharmacotherapy relevant dose of atorvastatin affected neither cell viability nor macrophage differentiation. Suppression of CXCR7 expression was completely reversed by supplementation with mevalonate. Inhibition of squalene synthase, the enzyme committed to cholesterol biosynthesis, also decreased CXCR7 induction, albeit not as efficacious as atorvastatin.

“The potential

“The potential MAPK Inhibitor Library concentration risks of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in aortic

arch surgery have been well documented. Antegrade cerebral perfusion may ameliorate brain injury but still involves variable periods of cerebral and visceral ischaemia. We describe a novel “branch-first continuous perfusion” technique which avoids both deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest. This brings us closer to the goal of arch surgery without cerebral or visceral ischaemia and the morbidity of deep hypothermia. (Heart, Lung and Circulation 2011;20:163-169) Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. All rights reserved.”
“ObjectiveThis study aims to estimate the incidence of adverse events (AEs) and avoidable AE in four hospital services before and after applying strategies for patient safety.\n\nDesignRetrospective study of two cohorts (2006 and 2009).\n\nSettingGeneral Surgery, Internal Medicine, Intensive Care Unit and Oncology services.\n\nParticipantsA sample of 365 patients (2006) and 232 in 2009 randomly selected from the services previously cited.\n\nInterventionsStrategies to improve patient safety (e.g. hand-hygiene

campaign).\n\nMain Staurosporine outcome measuresAnalyses were made of the change in the incidence and type of AE and avoidable AE, number of procedures and additional days of hospital stay, and the concordance between two recording systems.\n\nResultsThe incidence of check details patients with AE was 20.8% in 2006 compared with 28.9% in 2009 (P<0.05). Oncology had twofold more AE than did General Surgery [odds ratio (OR)=2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-3.86] for the same length of stay

and number of extrinsic risk factors. In 2006, 84.6% were considered avoidable, compared with 57.1% of 2009 (P<0.001). There was no difference in the average length of additional stay. In 2006, there were more additional procedures compared to 2009 (OR=2.75, 95% CI: 1.28-6.06). A concordance of 61% was found for the detection of AE with the two recording systems.\n\nConclusionsAn increased incidence in AEs was found after the strategies, while avoidable AE decreased, as did additional treatments and procedures. The measures implemented constitute a further step in reducing avoidance and a greater awareness of recording AEs in the discharge report.”
“Objectives: In this literature review, we concentrate on epidemiology and therapy of osseous echinococcosis, with an emphasis on the recurrence risk. Methods: Literature review 1930-2012. Results: We retrieved 200 publications based upon single case reports or case series, mostly from resource-poor settings. Among the 721 rural patients (22% females; median age 37 years), 60% of all reported cases were from the Mediterranean region and almost all patients were immune competent. Echinococcus granulosus was identified as the most frequent species.

The results showed a large number of genes belonging to subsystem

The results showed a large number of genes belonging to subsystems within the axon guidance signaling pathway, macrophages/immune system, glutamate system, and others. We divided the data and discussion of these results into 2 papers, and this is the first paper, which deals with the axon guidance signaling and macrophage/immune system. Other systems will be described in the next paper. Many components of subsystems within the axon guidance signaling 3-MA mouse underwent changes in gene expression from 3 M to 6 M so

that the synapse/dendritic spine number would decrease at 6 M. Thus, axon guidance signaling probably contributes to the decrease in synapse/dendritic spine number at 6 M, the phenomenon that fits the overshoot-type synaptic formation in primates. Microglial activity (evaluated by quantifying AIF1 expression) and gene expression of molecules that modulate microglia, decreased at 6 M, just like the synapse/dendritic spine number. Thus, although microglial activity

is believed to be related to phagocytosis of synapses/dendritic spines, microglial activity alone cannot explain how pruning was accelerated in the pruning phase. On the other hand, expression of molecules that tag synapses/dendritic spines as a target of phagocytosis by microglia (e.g., complement components) increased at 6 M, suggesting that these tagging proteins may be involved in the acceleration of pruning during CYT387 the pruning phase. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“This study was performed to understand the anatomical substrates of amygdaloid modulation of feeding-related peptides-containing

neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). After biotinylated dextranamine (BDA) injection into the central amygdaloid nucleus (CeA) and immunostaining of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)- or orexin (ORX)-containing hypothalamic neurons in the mouse, the prominent overlap of the distribution field of the BDA-labeled fibers and that of the MCH-immunoreactive (ir) or ORX-ir neurons was found in the dorsolateral part of the LHA, and the labeled axon terminals made symmetrical synaptic contacts with somata HDAC inhibitor and dendrites of the MCH-ir or ORX-ir neurons. It was further revealed that nearly all the BDA-labeled axon terminals in the dorsolateral part of LHA were immunoreactive for glutamic acid decarboxylase, an enzyme for conversion of glutamic acid to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The present data suggest that the CeA is involved in the regulation of feeding behavior by exerting its GABAergic inhibitory action upon the MCH- and ORX-containing LHA neurons. (C) 2009 Elsevier BV. All rights reserved.”
“Homomeric alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors represent an important and complex pharmaceutical target.

In this model, repeated administration of the combination produce

In this model, repeated administration of the combination produced reproducible antiparkinsonian effects and was not associated with rescued striatal dopamine terminals. Microdialysis studies revealed that either systemic administration or local intranigral perfusion of J-113397 and SNC-80 led to the enhancement of nigral GABA, reduction of nigral Glu, and reduction of thalamic GABA levels, consistent with the view that NOP receptor blockade and DOP receptor stimulation caused synergistic overinhibition of nigro-thalamic GABA neurons. Whole-cell recording of GABA neurons in nigral slices confirmed that NOP receptor blockade enhanced the DOP receptor-induced

effect on IPSCs via presynaptic mechanisms. Finally, SNC-80 more potently stimulated stepping activity in mice lacking the NOP receptor than wild-type

AZD6738 solubility dmso controls, GSK1210151A confirming the in vivo occurrence of an NOP-DOP receptor interaction. We conclude that endogenous N/OFQ functionally opposes DOP transmission in substantia nigra reticulata and that NOP receptor antagonists might be used in combination with DOP receptor agonists to reduce their dosage while maintaining their full therapeutic efficacy.”
“Shinagawa K, Ploplis VA, Castellino FJ. A severe deficiency of coagulation factor VIIa results in attenuation of the asthmatic response in mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 296: L763-L770, 2009. First published March 13, 2009; doi:10.1152/ajplung.90638.2008.-Eosinophil counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of wild-type (WT)

mice increased after ovalbumin (OVA) challenge, a response that was diminished in comparably challenged low-expressing coagulation factor VII (FVII(tTA/tTA)) mice. Levels of T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines, buy Tubastatin A IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and eosinophil-attracting chemokines, eotaxin and RANTES, were also lower in the OVA-challenged FVII(tTA/tTA) mice. Eosinophils purified from low-FVII mice underwent apoptosis at a faster rate compared with WT eosinophils, and eosinophil migration in response to eotaxin was reduced in eosinophils obtained from FVII(tTA/tTA) mice. Airway hyperresponsiveness and mucous layer thickness were reduced in OVA-treated FVII(tTA/tTA) mice, and addition of exogenous coagulation factor X (FX) enhanced mucin production in human epithelial NCI-H292 cells. Correspondingly, incubation of FX with NCI-H292 cells resulted in activated (a) FX production, suggesting that the components required for FX activation were present on NCI-H292 cells. These results demonstrate that FVIIa functions in the asthmatic response to an allergen by stimulating lung eosinophilia, airway hyperresponsiveness, and mucin production, this latter effect through its ability to activate FX in conjunction with tissue factor.”
“DNA repair gene polymorphisms and mutations may influence cancer risk. The product of the NBS1 gene, nibrin, is functionally involved in the double-strand DNA break repair system.

Further results confirmed that standardization of H2O2 measuremen

Further results confirmed that standardization of H2O2 measurements in EBC requires (1) the re-calculation of the concentration exhaled per 100 l exhaled breath (because the analyzed GSK1838705A price concentration in the liquid condensate underlies multiple methodological sources of variability given by the collection process), and (2) subtracting the concentration of inspired indoor H2O2. In the study on pH use of the ISFET electrode (Sentron, the Netherlands) and a blood gas analyzer

ABL 550 (Radiometer, Denmark) led to comparable results for EBC-pH (r=0.89, R-2=79.3%, p <= 0.001). Physiological pH data in non-degassed EBC samples varied between 5.3 and 6.5, and were not significantly different between subjects, but were significantly higher in the evening compared with the morning. EBC-pH was not dependent on variables of spontaneous breathing pattern or ambient conditions, and no significant correlation was found between serum and EBC for pH.”
“Background: Current evidence indicates that a stem cell-like sub-population within malignant glioblastomas, that overexpress members of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) family transporters, is responsible for multidrug

resistance and tumour relapse. Eradication of the brain tumour stem cell (BTSC) compartment Selleck JQ1 is therefore essential to achieve a stable and long-lasting remission.\n\nMethods: Melatonin actions were analysed by viability cell assays, flow cytometry, quantitative

PCR for mRNA expression, western blot for protein expression and quantitative and qualitative promoter methylation methods.\n\nResults: Combinations of melatonin and chemotherapeutic drugs (including temozolomide, current treatment for malignant gliomas) have a synergistic toxic effect on BTSCs and A172 malignant glioma cells. This effect is correlated with a downregulation of the expression and function of the ABC transporter ABCG2/BCRP. Melatonin increased the methylation levels of the ABCG2/BCRP promoter and the effects on ABCG2/BCRP expression and function were prevented by preincubation with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor.\n\nConclusion: Our results point out a possible relationship between the downregulation of ABCG2/BCRP function and the synergistic toxic effect of melatonin and Selleck GANT61 chemotherapeutic drugs. Melatonin could be a promising candidate to overcome multidrug resistance in the treatment of glioblastomas, and thus improve the efficiency of current therapies.”
“The interannual variation of the Bowen ratio, through its effect on the warming extent of available energy to the ecosystem land surface air, heavily influences the ecosystem microclimate and affects the hydrological cycle at both regional and global scales. Although the precipitation amount in southeast China is not expected to change greatly as a result of climate change, the precipitation frequency may be altered in the future.

“The extent to which sex-specific genetic effects contribu

“The extent to which sex-specific genetic effects contribute to phenotypic variation is largely unknown. We applied a novel Bayesian method, sparse partitioning, to detect gene by sex (GxS) and gene by gene (GxG) quantitative loci (QTLs) in 1,900 outbred heterogeneous stock mice. In an analysis of 55 phenotypes, we detected 16 GxS and 6 GxG QTLs. The increase in the amount of phenotypic

variance explained by models including GxS was small, ranging from 0.14% to 4.30%. We conclude that GxS rarely make a large overall contribution to TPX-0005 order the heritability of phenotypes, however there are cases where these will be individually important.”
“Objectives. We examined population-level impact on customer awareness and use and explored potential disparities in outcomes regarding the King County, Washington, regulation requiring chain restaurants to provide calorie information. Methods. this website We analyzed 2008 to 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 3132 English-speaking King County residents aged 18 years and older who reported eating at a regulated chain. We used regression models to assess changes in calorie information

awareness and use from prepolicy to postpolicy implementation by customer demographics, health status, and restaurant type. Results. Calorie information awareness and use increased significantly from 2008 to 2010. Unadjusted analyses indicated that the proportion who saw and used calorie information tripled, from 8.1% to 24.8%. Fully adjusted analyses confirmed significant increases. After policy implementation, White, higher income, and obese respondents had greater odds of seeing calorie information. Women, higher income groups, and those eating at a fast-food versus a sit-down chain restaurant were more likely to use this information. Conclusions. Significant increases in calorie information awareness and use following regulation support the population-wide value of this policy. However, improvements

varied across race, income, and gender.”
“The mTORC1 kinase promotes growth in response to growth factors, energy levels, and amino acids, and its activity is often Etomoxir purchase deregulated in disease. The Rag GTPases interact with mTORC1 and are proposed to activate it in response to amino acids by promoting mTORC1 translocation to a membrane-bound compartment that contains the mTORC1 activator, Rheb. We show that amino acids induce the movement of mTORC1 to lysosomal membranes, where the Rag proteins reside. A complex encoded by the MAPKSP1, ROBLD3, and c11orf59 genes, which we term Ragulator, interacts with the Rag GTPases, recruits them to lysosomes, and is essential for mTORC1 activation.

“Pseudo-aneurysms of the ascending aorta are rare complica

“Pseudo-aneurysms of the ascending aorta are rare complications of aortic root and/or valve surgery and generally, surgical intervention has been advised. In the present case series we follow the natural progression of this condition in eight patients. We conclude that the most obvious predisposing factors for pseudo-aneurysm formation are: 1) Multiple aortic valve/root surgery for infective endocarditis and 2) A spectrum of diseases involving the ascending

aortic wall. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Ca2+ sparks represent synchronous opening of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ release channels located at the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane. Whereas a quantal nature of Ca2+ sparks has been defined in cardiac muscle, the regulation

of Ca2+ sparks in skeletal muscle has not been well-studied. Osmotic-stress applied to an intact skeletal muscle fiber can produce brief Ca2+ sparks and prolonged Ca2+ burst events. Here, we show that termination of Ca2+ bursts occurs in a step wise and quantal manner. Ca2+ burst events display kinetic features that are consistent with the involvement of both stochastic attrition and coordinated closure of RyR channels in the termination of SR Ca2+ release. Elemental unitary transition steps could be defined with a mean Delta F/F-0 of similar to 0.28, corresponding to the gating of 1-2 RyR channels. Moreover, the amplitude of the elemental transition steps declines at the later stage of the burst event. In tandem Ca2+ burst events Selleckchem NVP-LDE225 where two Ca2+ bursts occur at the same position within a fiber in rapid succession, the trailing see more event is consistently of lower amplitude than the initial event. These two complementary results suggest that SR Ca2+ release may be associated with local depletion of SR Ca2+ stores in mammalian skeletal muscle.”
“Pregnancy is a unique time in a woman’s life, accompanied by a variety of physiologic, anatomic and hormonal changes that can affect how oral health care is

provided. However, these patients are not medically compromised and should not be denied dental treatment simply because they are pregnant. This article discusses the normal changes associated with pregnancy, general considerations in the care of pregnant patients, and possible dental complications of pregnancy and their management.”
“Nanoqueous phase liquid (NAPL) simulator is a powerful and popular mathematical model for modeling the flow and transport of non-aqueous phase liquids in subsurface, but the testing of its feasibility under water table fluctuation has received insufficient attention. The feature in a column test was tested through two cycles of water table fluctuation. The sandy medium in the column was initially saturated, and each cycle of water table fluctuation consisted of one water table falling and one rising, resulting in a drainage and an imbibition of the medium, respectively.