The countries of isolation are shown according to the pubmlst database. The STs found in this study are in bold. NA, information not available. ST208 is predicted as the founder ST for CC92 by eBURST. ST75, ST92 and ST208 were the most common STs in our local settings as each of them were found in three to five hospitals scattered in different regions of the province. ST92 and ST75 were prevalent in West China Hospital in a study carried out in 2006  and were also the most common STs in China in 2005 . In contrast, ST208 had not been identified in China before, although it was found in five hospitals in this study. All our ST208 isolates except
one carried bla OXA-23. ST208 has recently become one of the two most common STs of carbapenem-non-susceptible isolates in the United States , suggesting that ST208 might be an emerging lineage carrying
carbapenem resistance determinants. ST92, a globally-distributed type, and its 103 TGF-beta inhibitor closely-related STs including ST75, ST118, ST136, ST138, ST191, ST208, ST218, ST368, ST381 and ST433 detected in this study comprised the clonal complex 92 (CC92, Figure 2), corresponding to the pan-European clone II (EUII; the international clone 2) . Although diverse types were detected, 43 isolates belonged to the CC92. Among the 104 STs of CC92, 35 STs were different from ST92 only in the gpi locus. Isolate information was available for 22 of these 35 STs, 14 of which have only been found in the East or Southeast Asia at present. The 20 non-CC92 STs identified in the present study PF477736 were either singletons (n = 12) or of a CC that was not a common international clone (Table 1). A total of 575 STs were assigned in the Eltanexor research buy Acinetobacter MLST database (http://pubmlst.org/abaumannii/, accessed by May 19, 2013), among which isolates identified as A. baumannii belonged to 545 STs. The 305-bp gpi locus of A. baumannii appeared to diverge much faster than
other loci, with 149 gpi allele types comparing to 45 gltA, 84 gyrB, 85 gdhB, 53 recA, 42 cpn60 and 63 rpoD. The occurrence of a different gpi allele for every three STs deposited in the pubmlst database raised Selleckchem Ponatinib the concern that gpi might not be an ideal locus for typing. A previous study  also suggested that gpi was not a good candidate for MLST analysis due to recombination. Therefore, the diversity of A. baumannii generated by variations in the gpi locus alone might need validation to appreciate whether the diversity is truly meaningful. Isolates belonging to each of 19 new STs were assigned to 18 STs using the Pasteur scheme (Table 1). Among the 18 STs determined by the Pasteur scheme, 12 had not been seen before and therefore were truly new STs. Although 411 STs of A. baumannii had been assigned in the pubmlst database before this study, a few new STs were still detected in a relatively small collection, suggesting that A. baumannii is likely to be extremely diverse in clonal origins or is undergoing a significant clonal expansion.