In addition, integration of the H-1 signal of the glucose moiety

In addition, integration of the H-1 signal of the glucose moiety at δ 5.44 and the H-3 and/or H-4 signals of the preponderant fructosyl units between δ 4.27 and 4.11 respectively, mean DPs of 8–9 (RFOS) and 7–8 (LFOS) can be proposed, but in both 1HNMR spectra there are signals of minor impurities that reduce the precision of this procedure for DP determination. Other methodologies for DP determination are high-performance chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and principally high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with

pulsed amperometric detection (HPAC-PAD), but the response for fructooligosaccharides (FOS) with HPAC-PAD can vary (Timmermans, van Leeuwen, Tournois, de Wit, & Vliegenthart, 1994) and analysis

often requires considerable sample purification. PD0332991 mw Particularly significant was the analysis of FOS or inulin from some plants, using MALDI-MS (Wang et al., 1999, Štikarovská and Chmelík, 2004, Lasytovicková and Chmelík, 2006 and Arrizon et al., 2010). We therefore applied this technique for determination of the DPs of fractions RFOS and LFOS. The spectrum for each FOS is shown in Fig. 3. RFOS and LFOS ions had a mass difference of 162 Da, which corresponds to fructose/glucose residues. It gave rise to [M + Na]+ and [M + K]+ ions as the main distribution obtained in the +LIN mode. Almost all spectra exhibited monomodal molecular 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase mass distributions. Often

food samples, such as onions, shallots, and garlic, naturally contain a high concentration of potassium ions, and could be analysed without further addition of salts (Wang Sporn, & Low, 1999). The molecular ions seen in MALDI-MS for RFOS and LFOS samples were almost entirely the potassium adducts (Fig. 3). Under these conditions, the DP distribution of FOS obtained for MALDI-MS ranged from 5 to 16 for RFOS and 4 to 9 for LFOS. These were consistent with their average-DPs obtained by integrating the 1H signals from NMR spectra. Carbohydrates ionise in a MALDI-MS source, only after cationisation with alkali ions (Börnsen, Mohr, & Widmer, 1995). For simplification of analysis, it is desirable that the carbohydrate sample contains predominantly only one metal ion, resulting in a single molecular ion peak. With no addition of another ion, the matrix and sample contained both sodium and potassium ions (Fig. 3), resulting in multiple ion signals. There have been some sample treatments, as with ion exchange membrane (Börnsen et al., 1995) and by dissolution of carbohydrates in 0.01 M solution of a particular metal salt (Wang Sporn, & Low, 1999), resulting in detection of a single adduct signal. Since the DPs of RFOS and LFOS were between 4 and 16 units and ionic exchange can be readily carried out in the inlet system of ESI-MS equipment, we analysed the FOS samples by this technique (Fig. 4).

4) The best binding percentage was detected for cheese from Corr

4). The best binding percentage was detected for cheese from Correntes (75.47 ± 0.5%) and the lowest for cheese from Capoeiras (61.78 ± 0.65%). The value for Correntes cheese was not different from those obtained for Arcoverde (72.21 ± 0.24%) Cachoeirinha (75.02 ± 0.02%), São Bento do Una (75.41 ± 0.15%), and Venturosa (74.36 ± 0.04%), while the cheese sample from Capoeiras, which showed the lowest value, was not different from those obtained from Arcoverde, Cachoeirinhas and Venturosa, but the difference was significant compared with those obtained

for cheeses from Correntes (p = 0.033) and São Bento do Una (p = 0.026). These results are of great importance, because besides having other properties the “Coalho” cheese FRAX597 can increase find more the bioavailability of zinc in the body, since intestinal absorption of zinc is affected by a great number of dietary factors, which include proteins, calcium, and metal-complexing. Also, this mineral plays a key role in the function of several enzymes, participates in cell division, genetic expression, physiological processes like cellular growth, and development and genetic transcription (Salgueiro et al., 2000).

It has been reported that phosphorylated peptides encrypted in αs1-, αs2- and β-casein may form soluble complexes with minerals such as calcium, iron and zinc at intestinal pH, modulating their bioavailabilities. These peptides, which act as mineral solubilisers and/or carriers, are known as caseinophosphopeptides (CPPs) and can be released “in vitro” or “in vivo” by enzymatic digestion of dairy products or during their processing ( Clare and Swaisgood, 2000 and Meisel and FitzGerald, 2003). Many CPPs contain high polar acidic sequences of three phosphoserines followed by two glutamic acid residues (SpSpSpEE), which are the binding sites for minerals. Moreover, Temsirolimus chemical structure there is evidence that amino acid residues upstream and downstream of this region

are also involved ( Ferraretto, Gravaghi, Fiorilli, & Tettamanti, 2003). Harzer and Kauer (1982), did not detect zinc binding to dephosphorylated casein; the conclusion might be drawn that the bivalent zinc ion is complexed to casein by the negative charge of phosphate groups, which would be in good agreement with the fact that there was no zinc binding to casein at low pH, where the phosphate residues would be protonated. Another important result about the zinc-binding activity of artisanal “Coalho” cheese was that the zinc bound weakly to phosphoserine residues in CPPs, and according to Sato, Noguchi, and Naito (1986), this weak affinity is relevant to nutrition, because zinc and other minerals can be released progressively in the intestinal lumen, allowing greater absorption of zinc. There are no previous reports about antimicrobial activity of “Coalho” cheese.

Cheeses were triturated and homogenised for the physical chemical

Cheeses were triturated and homogenised for the physical chemical assays. To

characterise cheese samples the following analysis were carried out, in triplicate: fat by the method of Gerber-Van Gulik (Instituto Adolfo Lutz., 1985); titratable acidity (Instituto Adolfo Lutz, 1985); moisture (Case, Bradley, & Williams, 1985); ash (Instituto Adolfo Lutz, 1985); salt (Serres, Amariglio, & Petransxiene, 1973) and to determine pH, 10 g of grated cheese were transferred to a 100 ml beaker, 10 ml of distilled water was added and after homogenising 30 ml of distilled water was added; the mixture was left to rest for 5 min and was then filtered through hydrophilic cotton into 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask, cotton was rinsed with 10 ml of distilled water, squeezed and the clear filtrate was used for pH determination.

As a common practise in our laboratory, analysis for fat, moisture, ash and salt were Compound C only determined on the first day of ripening. To evaluate proteolysis, total nitrogen (TN) was determined by the micro-Kjeldahl method according to AOAC (1997) using a factor of 6.38 to determine total protein. For soluble nitrogen evaluation, the procedure for preparing the cheese extract was adapted from Vakaleris and Price (1959). Fifty grammes of grated cheese was homogenised with 100 ml of distilled water PCI32765 at 40–45 °C and 50 ml of 0.5 M sodium citrate in a mixer for 7 min. The homogenous milky solution was transferred, using distilled water, into a 250 ml volumetric flask, cooled to room temperature, brought up to volume and thoroughly mixed. This was referred to as the homogenate. To obtain the fraction of nitrogen soluble at pH 4.6, a 100 ml

aliquot of the homogenate was transferred to a 250 ml beaker, 20 ml of 1.41 M HCl was added and after 5 min 15 ml of distilled water was added. The solution was filtered through a Whatman No. 1 filter paper and the clear filtrate was used for subsequent measurement of total nitrogen content. To Protirelin obtain the fraction of nitrogen soluble in TCA 12%, a 50 ml aliquot of the homogenate was transferred to a 250 ml beaker, 50 ml of 24% TCA solution was added and after 15 min 15 ml of distilled water was added. The solution was filtered through a Whatman No. 1 filter paper and the clear filtrate was used for subsequent measurement of total nitrogen content. Ripening extension and depth indices were expressed as percentage of total nitrogen: NS-pH 4.6/TN*100 and NS-TCA 12%/TN*100, respectively. Proteolysis was monitored as described by Shalabi and Fox (1987). For this, 20 mg of cheese samples were incubated at 37 °C, in Eppendorf flasks, with 0.4 ml of 0.062 M tris–HCl buffer, pH 6.7, containing 42% (w/v) urea for 1 h. Afterwards, 10 μl of β-mercaptoethanol were added and the mixture again kept at 37 °C for 45 min. Finally, a drop of bromophenol blue was added.

, 2012) The use of parabens has raised concern due to their weak

, 2012). The use of parabens has raised concern due to their weak estrogenic activity confirmed in in vivo and in vitro studies. The potency seems to increase with the length of the alkyl chain, thus the long-chain parabens (e.g. ProP and butylparaben (ButP)) are of highest concern (Boberg et al., 2010, Routledge et al., 1998 and Witorsch and Thomas, 2010). In 2010, the EU Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) evaluated the safety of parabens and concluded that the use of MetP and EthP Selleckchem A-1210477 below the maximum permitted levels is considered safe, whereas the safety of ProP and ButP at the maximum levels is more uncertain due to lack of data (SCCS, 2011). TCS (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol)

is used as an antimicrobial agent in personal care products such as deodorants, toothpastes, mouth washes and shower gels, and also in consumer products such as cleaning products, plastics and toys (Bedoux et al., 2012). TCS is approved by the European Cosmetic Directive for use in PCI-32765 molecular weight cosmetic products in concentrations up to 0.3% (EC, 2009), but is no longer permitted for use in food contact materials (EC, 2010). TCS is readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, whereas the uptake via the oral cavity and skin is lower (SCCP, 2009). After absorption, TCS is almost completely converted to glucuronic and sulphuric acid conjugates and is subsequently excreted predominately in urine

as glucuronide conjugates. The

elimination half-life in humans after oral administration is estimated to be 13–29 h (SCCP, 2009). Serial measurements of TCS in morning urine have shown relatively high consistency over time (ICC = 0.56; (Lassen et al., 2013)). TCS has been shown in animal studies to cause endocrine effects, especially on the levels of thyroid hormones (Crofton et al., 2007, Dann and Hontela, 2011, Kumar et al., 2009 and Zorrilla et al., 2009). The Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP) has concluded that the current maximum concentration of 0.3% is not safe when the aggregate exposure from all cosmetic products second is considered. However, the maximum concentration is considered safe for individual products such as toothpastes, soaps and deodorants, but not in products that stay on the skin (e.g. body lotions) or mouth wash (SCCP, 2009). The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the levels of 10 phthalate metabolites, 5 parabens, BPA and TCS in urine from Swedish children (6–11 years old) and their mothers, in relation to demographics, lifestyle, housing and different potential sources of exposure to these chemicals. The study is part of a harmonized approach for biomonitoring on the European level; the COPHES (COnsortium to Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) and DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) twin projects.

In contrast, children succeeding at the give-N task are usually r

In contrast, children succeeding at the give-N task are usually referred to as “Cardinal Principle Knowers” (hereafter,

CP-Knowers). Becoming a CP-Knower has been thought to mark a crucial induction Wortmannin price where children construct a new concept of exact number (Carey, 2009; Piantadosi et al., 2012; although see Davidson, Eng, & Barner, 2012). Thus, to address the debate on the origins of exact numbers, in the rest of this paper we focus on the number concepts of children who have not yet mastered counting: subset-knowers. Do subset-knowers understand that number words refer to precise quantities, defined in terms of exact equality? In the small number range, by definition, subset-knowers apply their known number words to exact MAPK inhibitor quantities, as do adults. To be classified as a “two-knower”, for example, a child must systematically give exactly one and two objects when asked for one and two objects

respectively, and he/she must not give one or two objects when asked for other numbers. In line with this competence, for quantities within the range of their known number words, children’s interpretation of number words accords with the relation of exact numerical equality (Condry & Spelke, 2008): children choose a different number word after a transformation that affects one-to-one correspondence (such as addition), but not after a transformation that does not affect the set (such as rearrangement). Nevertheless, these abilities are open to the same three interpretations as is children’s performance in Gelman’s “winner” task (Gelman, 1972a, Gelman, 2006 and Gelman and Gallistel, 1986): Known number words may designate exact cardinal values; they may designate approximate numerosities (and yield exact responding

because of the large ratio differences between sets of 1, 2, and 3); or the meaning of these words may be defined Chloroambucil through representations constructed in terms of parallel object tracking, a mechanism that is not available for larger numerosities. Studies of subset-knowers’ application of larger number words are needed to determine whether subset-knowers interpret exact numerals in terms of exact numbers. In contrast to their performance with words for small numbers, subset-knowers do not consistently apply words for larger numbers to precise quantities, even for words that they use when they engage in the counting routine. Results are mixed across studies (Brooks et al., 2012, Condry and Spelke, 2008 and Sarnecka and Gelman, 2004), and different interpretations have been proposed for these discrepant results: children’s responses may either reflect limits to their conceptual competence, or variations of their strategic performance (Brooks et al., 2012). We will return to this debate in the General Discussion; at this point, it suffices to note that subset-knowers do not consistently generalize number words according to exact number.

, 2004 and Nagy and Lockaby, 2012) These systems may be extensiv

, 2004 and Nagy and Lockaby, 2012). These systems may be extensive Alectinib in vivo or rare in the landscape, represent unique habitats locally and globally, with significant social and ecological values (Moberg and Ronnback, 2003, Alongi, 2008 and Grossmann, 2012). They are generally heavily impacted by humans (Wohl, 2005 and Miettinen et al., 2012) and especially in coastal areas, urbanized (Burbridge, 2012). Despite the highly altered nature of these areas, the interest in restoring wetland and coastal ecosystems

is great as a way to mitigate damage from changing land use in upland areas of watersheds that cause downstream flooding (Bruijnzeel, 2004) and further challenges from sea-level rise, salt-water intrusion, and increased coastal storm and wave action under future selleck inhibitor climate (Kaplan et al., 2010, Maschinski et al., 2011 and Gilman et al., 2008). Restoring wet forests often requires a combination of hydrologic modification

and revegetation, with due consideration for natural recolonization (Allen et al., 2001 and Lewis, 2005). Restoring hydrologic functioning must begin with an objective examination of what is possible, in particular the extent to which hydroperiod can be truly restored. Fully restoring hydrological functioning goes beyond re-wetting but full restoration may be impractical because of cost, incompatibility with current land uses, or conflict with private property rights, especially in large riverine systems with extensive levees and flood control structures (Stanford et al., 1996, Lockaby and Stanturf, 2002 and Hughes

et al., 2012). Nevertheless, increased interest in “soft-engineering” approaches to water Ponatinib clinical trial management (Day et al., 2003 and Borsje et al., 2011), combined with predictions of coastal vulnerability to sea-level rise may change perceptions of feasibility (Danielsen et al., 2005 and Zhang et al., 2012). Restoring hydrologic functioning of rivers goes beyond forest restoration and may involve removing dams and breaching levees before restoring vegetation (Stanford et al., 1996, Schneider, 2010 and Hughes et al., 2012). Inundation regime remains critical for matching species to site; for example, mangrove forests globally are inundated ⩽30% of the time by tidal waters, which may require modifying the slope of the restoration site to the appropriate height above mean seal level (Lewis, 2005). If hydroperiod has not been altered, or can be easily restored, site factors are critical to determining restoration success. Many planting failures can be traced to outplanting species unadapted to the existing inundation regime (Stanturf et al., 1998, Stanturf et al., 2001 and Lewis, 2005).

for providing the data and making MyFLq easily accessible on thei

for providing the data and making MyFLq easily accessible on their BaseSpace platform. “
“This article has been published in Forensic Science International Volume 7, Issues 5, e8–e12, April 2012. However, this article was submitted as part of DNA in Forensics 2012 special issue and should have been published as such in this issue (Volume 7, Issues 6, 2013). The article can be located at: INCB018424 order The publisher would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. “
“In the Abstract of the article “Prognostic Factors for Clinical Outcomes in Endodontic Microsurgery: A Retrospective Study” (J Endod 2011;37:927–33),

under “Results,” in the second and third

sentences, “root-filling length (adequate)” should be changed to “root-filling length (inadequate).” The correct sentences now read, “At the 0.05 level of significance, age, sex (female), tooth position (anterior), root-filling length (inadequate), lesion type (endodontic lesion), root-end filling material (mineral trioxide aggregate and Super EBA; Harry J. Bosworth, Skokie, IL), and restoration at follow-up appeared to have a positive effect on the outcome. On the other hand, with an isolated endodontic lesion, the tooth position (anterior), root-filling length (inadequate), and restoration at follow-up were significant

almost factors at the 95% confidence level. On page selleck kinase inhibitor 931, 7th line of the 4th full paragraph in the right hand column, “root-filling length (adequate)” should be changed to “root-filling length (inadequate). “
“In the article “Numeric Comparison of the Static Mechanical Behavior between ProFile GT and ProFile GT Series X Rotary Nickel-Titanium Files” (J Endod 2011;37:1158–61), the results shown for the torsion case are for a torque of 1.25 Nmm instead of the 2.5 Nmm mentioned. Note that this does not affect, in any way, the discussion or the conclusions regarding the comparison between the rotary instruments’ performance. “
“The creation of new DNA profiling technologies and their application to forensic science is key to the field’s development. Improvements to the speed, sensitivity and power of discrimination are all common areas of research [1], [2] and [3]. Recently there have been moves towards the development of technologies focussing on automation and portability which, together with cost reduction, will usher in the next generation of forensic platforms [4]. Rapid DNA profiling is one such area of research and development and has been growing in response to a desire from enforcement authorities for both in-house control over the forensic DNA process and rapid access to forensic genetic intelligence [5].

We found that the ability to represent recursion in the visual do

We found that the ability to represent recursion in the visual domain was Roxadustat mw correlated with grammar comprehension, and that this correlation was partially independent from general intelligence. However this effect was not specific to recursion, since grammar comprehension also correlated with embedded iteration. This suggests that grammar comprehension abilities were correlated with a more general ability to represent and process hierarchical structures generated

iteratively, independently of whether these were recursive or not. This result is not completely surprising given that not all syntactic structures in TROG-D are recursive, although all are hierarchical. We also assessed whether there was a more specific correlation between visual recursion and embedded clauses, but found again only a general association with both EIT and VRT. However, it is important to note that TROG-D only includes sentences with one level of embedding, e.g. relative clause (nominative): Der Junge, derdas Pferd jagt, ist dick ‘The boy, who is chasing the horse, is chubby’. Children may potentially use non-recursive representations for these kind of sentences ( Roeper, 2011). Only a task focussed on sentences with several levels of recursive embedding would allow a direct comparison between visual

recursion and syntactic recursion. Despite this limitation, it is interesting that performance on our novel check details visual tasks was correlated with grammar abilities, even when the effects of non-verbal intelligence were taken into account. These correlations could be explained by the existence of shared cognitive resources, independent from non-verbal intelligence, used for the processing of hierarchical structures in both language and visuo-spatial reasoning, or even by the effects of literacy GBA3 (which are partially independent of intelligence) in the processing of hierarchical structures. Interestingly, while individual differences in intelligence predicted VRT and EIT scores both between and within grades, grammatical

comprehension abilities accounted only for differences between grades. Again, this argues in favor of a general age-related maturational influencing the processing of hierarchical structures, occurring between second and fourth grade, which is partially independent from non-verbal intelligence. Furthermore, in our sample, grammar comprehension and non-verbal intelligence were not significantly correlated. Hence, this general maturation process in hierarchical processing cannot be explained solely by the increase of intelligence with age. Future studies with a more comprehensive assessment of grammar (that includes recursion at several levels), and the inclusion of more cognitive tests (assessing cognitive control, attention, etc.) in the experimental procedure could potentially shed more light on a possible relationship between grammar and processing of complex visual structures.

Utilitarians must also reject inalienable rights and consideratio

Utilitarians must also reject inalienable rights and considerations of distributive justice, as well as principles of desert and retribution, or of purity and hierarchy.

And so on. A utilitarian must reject all deontological constraints on the pursuit of the greater good. But, again, it is obviously a mistake to assume that if someone rejects some deontological norms, let alone a single BMS-754807 order deontological constraint relating to personal harm in a specific, unusual context, then they must also reject all such norms, or even many of them. For example, someone can reject a specific deontological constraint on directly harming others while still holding extreme deontological views about other moral questions (such as that lying is absolutely forbidden), Decitabine solubility dmso or radical libertarian views about property rights. Consider an analogy: an atheist would typically rejects all religious rules, but of course the fact that someone rejects a religious rule against, say, eating pork hardly amounts to any interesting step in the direction of atheism, let alone count as an ‘atheist judgment.’ Needless to say, someone making such a judgment may in fact be a Christian fundamentalist Recent research on sacrificial dilemmas has overlooked these points. It has mistakenly treated the rejection (or discounting) of a single intuitive deontological constraint relating to harm in a specific,

unusual context, as a significant step in a utilitarian direction, and it has mistakenly assumed that when subjects instead endorse an act that will save a larger number of lives in this special context, then this endorsement must express an impartial utilitarian concern for the greater good. Yet such supposedly ‘utilitarian’ judgments reflect only a very narrow aspect of the negative side of utilitarianism. At the same time, they may reflect little or nothing of utilitarianism’s core positive side: the moral aim of impartially maximizing aggregate well-being.

One robust result of the present study is that there appears to be no interesting relationship between Plasmin so-called ‘utilitarian’ judgment and this positive core of a utilitarian approach to ethics. The consistent association between ‘utilitarian’ judgment and antisocial tendencies is a striking illustration of the above points. In particular, recent research has overlooked the fact that the negative dimension of utilitarianism is also shared by views that are otherwise radically opposed to it. For example, egoists also approach practical questions in a calculating, no-nonsense manner, and are quick to dismiss many common moral intuitions and sentiments. Needless to say, however, egoists utterly reject the positive core of a utilitarian outlook, holding instead that we should care about (and maximize) only what is in our own self-interest.

The cytotoxic

effect of 20(S)-Rg3 in MCF-7 cells unexpect

The cytotoxic

effect of 20(S)-Rg3 in MCF-7 cells unexpectedly showed no significant difference. These results were consistent when Rg3 was treated in MDA-MB-453 cells (Figs. 4A, 4B). The results from flow cytometric analysis [i.e., fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)] indicated that Rg5 significantly induced cell cycle arrest (Figs. 5A, 5B). This was further confirmed by the cell cycle assay with the data representing suppressed cell proliferation in MCF-7 cells after Rg5 treatment. Rg5 increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase and decreased the number of cells in the S phase. Based on these results, Rg5 may induce cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. Protein expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E2 and CDK4 was decreased, whereas the expression of p15INK4B, INCB018424 ic50 p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 was increased (Figs. 6A, 6B). As Fig. 7A shows, treatment with Alectinib Rg5 induced caspase-8 and caspase-9, caspase-7, caspase-6. The full-length Bid consequently disappeared in a dose-dependent manner. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase

(PARP) cleavage was detected in Rg5-treated MCF-7 cells, which indicated that Rg5 reduced cell viability by inducing apoptosis. Promotion of mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway by Rg5 was evidenced by Bax/Bcl-2 dysregulation, activation of caspase-9, and release of cytochrome C (Fig. 7A). Apoptosis was evaluated by annexin V/FITC/PI dual staining. After 48 h, Rg5 significantly increased apoptosis at 25μM and 50μM and reduced apoptotic cells at 100μM, whereas necrotic cells were increased (Fig. 7B). The increased expression

of DR4 and DR5 on the cell surface was obvious when cells were treated at the 100μM concentration of Rg5 (Fig. 8A). Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is necessary for apoptosis induced by exposure to ultraviolet radiation, cytokines, chemotherapy, ceramide, and serum deprivation [24]. When Inositol monophosphatase 1 cells were treated with Rg5 (50μM and 100μM), p38 MAPKs were activated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (data not shown) (Fig. 8C). Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptotic proteins, is highly expressed in most types of cancer and is a regulator of mitosis; survivin-targeting cancer treatment is validated with great efficacy and no serious toxicity [25]. The expression of survivin was suppressed at high concentrations of Rg5 (Fig. 8D). Apoptotic cells were visualized with DAPI as fluorescent probes. When cells were incubated for 48 h with Rg5 at indicated concentrations (i.e., 0μM, 50μM, and 100μM), the cells displayed the typical apoptosis morphology such as fragmented and condensed nuclei with cellular shrinkage (Fig. 9B). Cells treated with Rg5 at the 100μM concentration showed a necrosis-like morphology (Fig. 9C). Red ginseng is fresh ginseng that is dry-steamed once using water vapor. Black ginseng refers to ginseng that is steamed nine times. Fine Black ginseng refers to the fine roots (i.e., hairy roots) of BG steamed nine times. As Fig.