Incidental perforation

in rectal cancer surgery is an

\n\nIncidental perforation

in rectal cancer surgery is an important risk factor of poor oncological outcome and should be considered in the discussion concerning postoperative adjuvant treatment as well as the follow-up regime.”
“The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(15)H(13)BrN(2)O, contains two independent molecules with different conformations; the two aromatic rings form dihedral angles of 32.4 (4) and 27.5 (4)degrees in the two molecules. In the crystal structure, intermolecular N-H center dot center dot center dot O hydrogen bonds link molecules into chains propagating in [100].”
“The widespread commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells remains limited because of the poor long-term stability. We report on the influence of dye-molecules added in liquid electrolyte on long-term stability of dye-sensitized BI 6727 molecular weight solar cells. Dye-desorption from the TiO2 surface during long-term cycling is one of the decisive factors that degrade photocurrent densities of devices which in turn OSI-744 research buy determine the efficiencies of the devices. For the first time, desorption of dye from the TiO2 surface could be suppressed by controlling thermodynamic equilibrium; by addition of dye molecules in the electrolyte. The dye molecules in the electrolyte can suppress the driving forces for the adsorbed dye molecules to be desorbed

from TiO2 nanoparticles. As a result, highly enhanced device stabilities were achieved due to the reduction of dye-desorption although there was a little decrease in the initial efficiencies.”
“The eyebrow is one of the most important structures of the face from an aesthetic point of view. As age increases, the brow changes its shape and position. This age-related change decreases the vitality, youth, and check details expression associated with the aesthetically ideal face. This article describes changes in eyebrow position in Indian women with aging.\n\nThis study recruited 80 female subjects for each of the required age ranges (20-30 years and 50-60 years) from the staff and outpatient settings

at a tertiary care center in central India. Women who had any condition that could affect the measurements were excluded from the study. Standardized digital photographs in frontal view were captured with the forehead and eyebrows in a maximally relaxed position and with the eyes open. Eyebrow position was determined by measuring from a reference horizontal plane drawn between the medial canthi to vertical points on the upper brow margin at the medial canthus, pupil, and lateral canthus. The result was statistically analyzed.\n\nWith aging, the least rise was seen in the lateral segment, which was not statistically significant. This difference was statistically significant at the medial and midbrow positions (p < 0.05). In the younger group, the lateral brow position was significantly higher than the midbrow (p < 0.05).

21 mm, p = 0 001), the mean external elastic membrane diameter (+

21 mm, p = 0.001), the mean external elastic membrane diameter (+0.13 mm, p = 0.010), the lumen area (+0.87 mm(2), p = 0.001), and the external elastic membrane area (+0.85 mm(2), p = 0.001) in the distal reference segments and ML323 price an increase in the left ventricular ejection fraction (+2.77%, p = 0.010). Overall, 40 of 58 patients (69%) showed lumen area increase; these patients had increase in lumen diameter by 0.40 +/- 0.34 mm (p < 0.001) and increase in incomplete stent apposition rate (p = 0.006). A TO duration of longer than 3 months (odds

ratio [ OR]: 14.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28 to 172.8, p = 0.032), a poor collateral flow (OR: 12.0; Apoptosis Compound Library purchase 95% CI: 1.92 to 74.2, p = 0.008), and statin use (OR: 7.4; 95% CI: 1.03 to 53.6, p = 0.047)

were independent predictors of lumen area increase.\n\nConclusions Recanalization of TO led to lumen area increase in two-thirds of the patients. Independent predictors of lumen area increase were occlusion duration, a poor collateral flow, and statin use. These factors could be used as guides in choosing the optimal stent size during percutaneous coronary intervention to TO lesions and optimal medical therapy during follow-up. (J Am Coll Cardiol Intv 2012; 5: 827-36) (C) 2012 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation”
“The search for new treatments to improve outcome in people with anorexia nervosa continues. This pilot study investigated whether one session of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) delivered to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reduces eating disorder related symptoms following exposure to visual and real food stimuli. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Ten right-handed people with anorexia nervosa

underwent one session of rTMS. Subjective experiences related to the eating disorder (e.g. urge to restrict, feeling full etc.) were assessed before and after rTMS. Nonparametric repeated measures tests were used. rTMS was safe and well- tolerated, and resulted in reduced levels of feeling Napabucasin in vitro full, feeling fat and feeling anxious. Thus, rTMS may reduce core symptoms of anorexia nervosa. Future research should establish the therapeutic potential of rTMS in anorexia nervosa. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“For a molecular epidemiological study based on complete genome sequences, 37 Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates were collected from the Kanto region in Japan. Pair-wise analyses revealed that all 37 Japanese isolates belong to the PPV-D strain, with low genetic diversity (less than 0.8%).

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“51 highly cros

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“51 highly cross-linked cyclodextrin-based polyurethanes were produced using a high-throughput synthesis method. The reaction

was carried out in a multiwell plate using three different cyclodextrins, namely alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin, four different diisocyanate crosslinkers (1,4-phenylene diisocyanate, toluene 2,4-diisocyanate, isophorone diisocyanate, and hexamethylene diisocyanate), and four different carboxyl-containing dihydroxy monomers (2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic HDAC inhibitor acid, 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid, and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid). The interactions of the produced polyurethanes with a mixture of molecules of interest, namely acetaminophenol, atenolol, caffeine, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, (+/-)-propranolol and diclofenac,

were studied in water. It was demonstrated that the binding properties of the produced polyurethanes could be tuned by selecting the monomers and crosslinkers used for their synthesis. In addition to the hydrophobic inclusion of the target into the cyclodextrin macrocycle, a set of synergistic interactions were shown to BLZ945 manufacturer influence the sorption behavior of the produced polyurethanes. Two selected formulations were upscaled at the gram quantity; the binding results showed a similar behavior as that of the polyurethanes produced using the high-throughput method, thus demonstrating the suitability of the method to produce polymers with enhanced molecular recognition properties.”
“We fabricated 3-dimensional scaffolds consisting of biodegradable poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolic acid)(PLGA)(75/25) with hydroxyapatite particles containing atelocollagen (aAC). The aim of this study was to evaluate this new type of scaffold in regard to its basic properties and biocompatibility. Characterization

of the obtained scaffolds was performed to know the porosity, shrinkage, diametral tensile strength, and biocompatibility. Composite scaffolds made of PLGA with hydroxyapatite particles NVP-LDE225 datasheet containing atelocollagen (PL-aAC) showed a greater strength and stability than PLGA scaffolds. PL-aAC also exhibited superior performance in terms of cell attachment and proliferation as compared to PLGA, while histological findings showed that PL-aAC had an excellent response toward soft tissues. Our results strongly suggest that PL-aAC is more useful for cell transplantation as compared to PLGA for bone tissue engineering.”
“The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus contains two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) homologues known as GapA and GapB.

Conversely, Notch pathway genes continue to oscillate in the pres

Conversely, Notch pathway genes continue to oscillate in the presence of stabilized beta-catenin but boundary formation is delayed and anteriorized. Together, these results suggest that the Wnt3a/beta-catenin pathway is permissive but not instructive for oscillating clock genes and that it controls the anterior-posterior positioning of boundary formation Rigosertib datasheet in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). The Wnt3a/beta-catenin pathway does so by regulating the activation of the segment boundary determination genes Mesp2 and Ripply2 in the PSM through the activation of the Notch ligand Dll1 and the mesodermal transcription factors T and Tbx6. Spatial restriction

of Ripply2 to the anterior PSM is ensured by the Wnt3a/beta-catenin-mediated repression of Ripply2 in posterior PSM. Thus, Wnt3a regulates somitogenesis by activating a network of interacting target genes that promote mesodermal fates, activate the segmentation clock, and position boundary determination genes in the anterior PSM.”
“The aim of the present study was to investigate whether locomotor stimulation training

could have beneficial effects on the morphometric alterations of spinal cord and sciatic nerve consequent to sensorimotor restriction (SR). Male Wistar selleck chemicals rats were exposed to SR from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P28. Control and experimental rats underwent locomotor stimulation training in a treadmill for three weeks (from P31 to P52). The cross-sectional area (CSA) of spinal motoneurons innervating hind limb muscles was determined. Both fiber and axonal CSA of myelinated fibers were also assessed. The growth-related increase in CSA of motoneurons in the SR group was less than controls. After SR, the mean motoneuron soma size was reduced with an increase in the proportion of

motoneurons with a soma size of between 0 and 800 mu m(2). The changes in soma size of motoneurons were accompanied by a reduction in the mean fiber and axon CSA of sciatic nerve. The soma size of motoneurons was reestablished at the end of the training period reaching controls level. Our results suggest that SR during early postnatal life retards the growth-related increase in the cell body size of motoneurons in spinal cord and the development of sciatic nerve. Additionally, three weeks of locomotor stimulation SBE-β-CD using a treadmill seems to have a beneficial effect on motoneurons’ soma size. (C) 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The in vitro infectivity and genotype of three IPNV strains (V70, V112 and V98) was linked to the level of transcript synthesis for the Mx3 protein in RTG-2 (Rainbow trout gonad) cells and in Salmo salar. The V70 and V98 strains corresponded to the Sp genotype, whilst the V112 corresponded to VR-299: the presence of Pro-217 and Ala-221 in VP2 identified V70 as a strain of medium virulence level whilst V112 (Ala-217 and Thr-221) and V98 (Pro-217 and Thr-221) were of low virulence.

“Pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) are present in

“Pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) are present in species such as cattle, sheep and horse and promote acute lung inflammation (ALI). Rabbits are often used as a model of ALI but there is controversy about the presence of PIMs in these species. Rabbits were treated with 10 mg/kg of gadolinium chloride intravenously

(GC; n = 6) or saline (n = 6) followed by euthanasia at 48 h post-treatment to determine the presence of PIMs. In a subsequent study, rabbits were pre-treated with GC or 0.9 % saline followed by 100 mu g/kg of E. coli lipopolysaccharide intravenously 48 h later. Rabbits were euthanized 24 h post-LPS treatment. Light and electron microscopy showed that PIMs attached to the capillary endothelium and were positive BMS-754807 order for RAM-11 anti-macrophage SIS3 supplier antibody. While GC treatment induced apoptotic PIMs, there was no difference in the PIM number between control

and GC-treated rabbits. Rabbits administered with LPS were 3.5 times more likely to die before the end of the 24-h period than those pre-treated with GC. Lung heterophil accumulation and IL-1 beta, TNF alpha and IL-6 mRNA expression were significantly higher in rabbits administered with LPS compared to those administered with GC before the LPS injection. PIMs from the LPS-treated rabbits were positive for TNF alpha. Lung, BAL and serum IL-8 and MCP-1 expression was not different between LPS rabbits with or without pre-treatment with GC. We conclude that rabbit lungs contain PIMs and that their depletion reduces endotoxin-induced lung inflammation. The presence of PIMs in rabbit lungs may need to be considered while using rabbit to model acute lung injury.”
“Attractive petals are an integral component of animal-pollinated

flowers and in many flowering plant species are restricted to the second floral whorl. Interestingly, multiple times during angiosperm evolution, petaloid characteristics Tipifarnib have expanded to adjacent floral whorls or to extra-floral organs. Here, we investigate developmental characteristics of petaloid sepals in Rhodochiton atrosanguineum, a close relative of the model species Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon). We undertook this in two ways, first using scanning electron microscopy we investigate the micromorphology of petals and sepals, followed by expression studies of genes usually responsible for the formation of petaloid structures. From our data, we conclude that R. atrosanguineum petaloid sepals lack micromorphological characteristics of petals and that petaloid sepals did not evolve through regulatory evolution of B-class MADS box genes, which have been shown to specify second whorl petal identity in a number of model flowering plant species including snapdragon. These data, in conjunction with other studies, suggests multiple convergent pathways for the evolution of showy sepals.

Analytical results on the reduction principle have always require

Analytical results on the reduction principle have always required some set of constraints for tractability: limitations to one or two selected loci, two alleles per locus, specific selection regimes or weak selection, specific genetic processes being modified, compound inhibitor extreme or infinitesimal effects of the modifier allele, or tight linkage between modifier and selected loci. Here, I prove the reduction principle in the absence of any of these constraints, confirming a twenty-year-old conjecture. The proof is obtained by a wider application of Karlin’s Theorem 5.2 (Karlin in Evolutionary biology, vol. 14, pp. 61-204, Plenum, New York, 1982) and its extension to ML-matrices,

substochastic matrices, and reducible

“Previous studies demonstrated that hydrophobic proteins could be PEGylated in organic phase rather than water phase. It is still not known what the difference is for a hydrophilic protein’s PEGylation in these two different phases. In this study, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) was dissolved in neat dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and Duvelisib concentration was PEGylated. In comparison with the PEGylation in water solution, the PEGylation degree in the organic solvent increased by 33% and 42% for PEG-maleimide (MAL-PEG) and PEG-succinimidyl carbonate (SC-PEG) respectively. Structure analysis revealed that the protein was unfolded in DMSO, which could make the PEGylated sites of G-CSF easily accessible. The hydrolysis half-life in water solution was 40 min and 9 h for SC-PEG and MAL-PEG respectively. However, in DMSO solvent,

PEGs were very stable and no hydrolysis could be detected. Stopped-flow demonstrated that the conjugation speed of G-CSF by MAL-PEG and SC-PEG in DMSO were 1.6 x 10(4) and 2 x 10(2) times faster than those in aqueous solution. The remarkable acceleration could mainly be attributed to an increase of protein nucleophilicity in DMSO. The results of this study could be referential to industrial application NVP-BSK805 manufacturer where the cost of PEG reagents and the speed of reaction on large scale are very important. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We simulate structural phase behavior of polymer-grafted colloidal particles by molecular Monte Carlo technique. The interparticle potential, which has a finite repulsive square-step outside a rigid core of the colloid, was previously confirmed via numerical self-consistent field calculation. This model potential is purely repulsive. We simulate these model colloids in the canonical ensemble in two and three dimensions and find that these particles containing no interparticle attraction self-assemble and align in a string-like assembly, at low temperature and high density. This string-like colloidal assembly is related to percolation phenomena.

Finally, the similarities between different ciliopathies at the p

Finally, the similarities between different ciliopathies at the phenotypic level are proving to be due to their shared cellular defect and also their common genetic basis. To this end, recent studies are showing that mutations in a given ciliary gene often appear involved in the pathogenesis of more than one clinical entity, complicating their genetic dissection, and hindering our ability to generate accurate genotype-phenotype correlations. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“A full description of the human proteome relies on the challenging task of detecting mature and changing forms of protein molecules in the

body. Large-scale proteome analysis(1) has routinely involved digesting intact proteins followed by inferred protein identification AS1842856 cost using mass spectrometry(2). This ‘bottom-up’ process affords a high number of identifications (not always unique to a single gene). However, complications arise from incomplete or ambiguous(2) characterization of alternative splice forms, diverse modifications (for example, acetylation and methylation) and endogenous protein cleavages, especially when combinations of these create complex patterns of intact protein isoforms and species(3). ‘Top-down’

interrogation of whole proteins can overcome these problems for individual proteins(4,5), Volasertib but has not been achieved on a proteome scale owing to the lack of intact protein fractionation methods that are well integrated with tandem mass spectrometry. Here we show, using a new four-dimensional separation system, identification of 1,043 gene products from human cells that are dispersed into more than 3,000 protein species created by post-translational modification (PTM), RNA splicing and proteolysis. The overall system produced greater than 20-fold increases in both separation power and proteome coverage, enabling the identification of proteins up to 105 kDa and those with up to 11 transmembrane

helices. Many previously undetected isoforms of endogenous human proteins were mapped, including changes in multiply modified species buy HKI-272 in response to accelerated cellular ageing (senescence) induced by DNA damage. Integrated with the latest version of the Swiss-Prot database(6), the data provide precise correlations to individual genes and proof-of-concept for large-scale interrogation of whole protein molecules. The technology promises to improve the link between proteomics data and complex phenotypes in basic biology and disease research(7).”
“Reduced expression of dyskinesia is observed in levodopa-primed MPTP-treated common marmosets when dopamine agonists are used to replace levodopa. We now investigate whether a combination of the D-2/D-3 agonist pramipexole and levodopa also reduces dyskinesia intensity while maintaining the reversal of motor disability. Drug naive, non-dyskinetic MPTP-treated common marmosets were treated daily for up to 62 days with levodopa (12.5 mg/kg plus carbidopa 12.5 mg/kg p.o. BID) or pramipexole (0.04-0.

Binding of these Fabs to covalently stabilized chimeric trimers o

Binding of these Fabs to covalently stabilized chimeric trimers of N-peptides of HIV1 gp41 (named (CCIZN36)(3) or 3-H) has now been investigated using X-ray crystallography, cryo-electron microscopy, and a variety of biophysical methods. Crystal structures of the complexes between 3-H

and Fab 8066 and Fab 8062 Selleckchem SB202190 were determined at 2.8 and 3.0 angstrom resolution, respectively. Although the structures of the complexes with the neutralizing Fab 8066 and its non-neutralizing counterpart Fab 8062 were generally similar, small differences between them could be correlated with the biological properties of these antibodies. The conformations of the corresponding CDRs of each antibody in the complexes with 3-H and 5-Helix are very similar. The adaptation to a different target upon complex formation is predominantly achieved by changes in the structure of the trimer of N-HR helices, as well as by adjustment of the orientation of the Fab molecule relative to the N-HR in the complex, via rigid-body movement. The structural data presented here indicate that binding of three Fabs 8062 with high affinity requires more significant changes in the PF-03491390 structure of the N-HR trimer compared to

binding of Fab 8066. A comparative analysis of the structures of Fabs complexed to different gp41 intermediate mimetics allows further evaluation of biological relevance for generation of neutralizing antibodies, as well as provides novel structural insights into immunogen design.”
“Background: Domperidone treatment for gastroparesis is associated with variable efficacy as well as the potential for side effects. DNA microarray single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis may help to elucidate the role of genetic variability on the therapeutic effectiveness and toxicity CBL0137 Apoptosis inhibitor of domperidone.\n\nAim:

The aim of this study was to identify SNPs that are associated with clinical efficacy and side effects of domperidone treatment for gastroparesis from DNA microarray experiments. This will help develop a strategy for rational selection of patients for domperidone therapy.\n\nMethods: DNA samples extracted from the saliva of 46 patients treated with domperidone were analyzed using Affymetrix 6.0 SNP microarrays. Then least angle regression (LARS) was used to select SNPs that are related to domperidone efficacy and side effects. Decision tree based prediction models were constructed with the most correlated features selected by LARS.\n\nResults: Using the most stable SNP selected by LARS a prediction model for side effects of domperidone achieved (95 +/- 0)% true negative rate (TN) and (78 +/- 11)% true positive rate (IF) in nested leave-one-out tests.

Reports showing the cardioprotective effects of felodipine have b

Reports showing the cardioprotective effects of felodipine have been published in the past. We chose to evaluate protective effect of felodipine in acute cardiotoxicity in rats induced by single dose of doxorubicin. Felodipine was assessed against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and we found that felodipine not only improves cardiac marker enzymes

(P smaller than 0.001 for LDH; P smaller than 0.01 for CK-MB) but also prevents damage to myocardial tissue (20.61% necrosed area in doxorubicin intoxication; 11.52% necrosed area in felodipine treated group). Activation of apoptotic pathways is decelerated which is indicated by a significant reduction in myocardial caspase-3 activity (P smaller selleckchem than 0.05) following felodipine pretreatment. learn more Felodipine pretreatment was able to maintain normal cardiac morphology and histoarchitecture. Gravimetric analysis revealed beneficial effects following felodipine pretreatment. Abnormalities seen in the ECG after doxorubicin treatment were normalized to a significant extent (ST interval normalization was significant at P smaller than 0.01) in felodipine treated rats. In itself, felodipine was not found to have any detrimental effects on

the myocardium or hemodynamic parameters of rats. Findings of the study suggest that pretreatment with felodipine prevents doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We investigated the use of graded-dose peginterferon alpha-2b (Peg-IFN) in patients with stage IV melanoma overexpressing basic fibroblast growth factor

(FGF-2). The primary objective was suppression of plasma FGF-2 to within reference range ( smaller than = 7.5 pg/mL). Experimental Design: Plasma FGF-2 was measured at selleck chemical baseline (step 1), and patients with concentrations of 15 pg/mL or more were eligible for study treatment (step 2). Peg-IFN was given weekly at a starting dose of 0.5 mu g/kg/wk with increment every 3 weeks based on serial FGF-2 concentrations. Results: Two hundred seven patients entered step 1; 45 (22%) overexpressed FGF-2 (median = 22 pg/dL). Twenty-nine eligible patients entered step 2 and received treatment. Patients’ median age was 64 years (range, 29-84 years). Most had more than two prior therapies. FGF-2 decreased in 28 (97%) patients, with suppression to reference range in 10 (35%). Median time to FGF-2 suppression was 30 days. The best clinical responses were partial response (7%) and stable disease (17%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 2.0 and 9.7 months, respectively. Patients who achieved FGF-2 suppression were more likely than those who did not to have a response or stable disease (P = 0.03). VEGF concentrations decreased in 27 patients (93%) during treatment and paralleled those of FGF-2 over time. We found no compensatory increase in VEGF among those with FGF-2 suppression.

Patients with myocardial infarction have hyperfunctional platelet

Patients with myocardial infarction have hyperfunctional platelets, which predict the degree of myocardial necrosis. Thus, we hypothesized that

platelets PX-478 nmr may be even more activated in patients whose myocardial infarction leads to cardiac arrest and compared them with patients whose cardiac arrest was due to a noncardiac origin.\n\nDesign: Prospective observational study.\n\nSetting: Emergency department of a tertiary care hospital.\n\nPatients: One hundred four patients with witnessed cardiac arrest who achieved ROSC.\n\nInterventions: Blood sampling.\n\nMeasurements and Main Results: We assessed collagen adenosine diphosphate closure time with the platelet function analyzer-100, and measured plasma levels of von Willebrand factor: ristocetin cofactor activity levels by turbidometry. Independent physicians diagnosed the origin of cardiac arrest. The majority of cardiac arrests were caused by myocardial ischemia. Invariably, collagen adenosine diphosphate

closure time values (55 seconds; 95% confidence interval: 52-58 seconds) were much shorter in these patients compared with patients with other causes of cardiac arrest (110 seconds; 95% confidence interval: 84-135 seconds, p < 0.001). von Willebrand factor: ristocetin cofactor activity plasma levels were more than three-fold above normal values in both groups.\n\nConclusions: Patients with myocardial ischemia-triggered cardiac arrest had the highest degree

of platelet hyperfunction under high shear rates, which was not solely due to increased von Willebrand factor. Future trials are necessary to clarity whether rapid, GDC-0994 cost more aggressive antiplatelet therapy improves outcome after cardiac arrest. (Crit Care Med 2009; 37:975-979)”
“The author reviewed 910 cases of consecutive esophageal biopsies in the last 15 year in the pathology laboratory of our hospital. There were 693 normal mucosa and benign lesions (76.2%) and 217 malignant lesions (23.8%). No significant changes were recognized in the esophagus in Quisinostat cost 50 biopsies (5.5%). In benign lesions, the number and frequency (percentages) were as follows: 263 chronic esophagitis (28.9%), 98 heterotopic gastric mucosa (10.8%), 3 heterotopic colonic mucosa (0.3%), 71 glycogenic acanthosis (7.8%), 68 candidiasis (7.5%), 35 benign ulcer (3.8%), 41 squamous papilloma (4.5%), 4 granular cell tumor (0.4%), 1 tubular adenoma (0.1%), 2 cytomegalovirus esophagitis (0.2%), 3 leiomyoma (0.3%), 17 basal cell hyperplasia (1.9%), and 37 Barrett’s epithelium (4%). In malignant lesions, the number and frequency (percentages) were as follows: 53 mild dysplasia (5.8%), 29 moderate dysplasia (3.2%), 31 severe dysplasia (3.4%), 13 carcinoma in situ (1.4%), 68 squamous cell carcinoma (7.5%), 7 primary adenocarcinoma (0.8%), 1 primary signet ring cell carcinoma (0.1%), 4 primary small cell carcinoma (0.