J Bone Miner Res 18:876–884CrossRefPubMed GDC-0449 mouse 31. Karsenty G (2003) The complexities of skeletal biology. Nature 423:316–318CrossRefPubMed 32. Judex S, selleckchem Garman R, Squire M et al (2004) Genetically linked site-specificity of disuse osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 19:607–613CrossRefPubMed 33. Burr DB, Forwood MR, Fyhrie DP et al (1997) Bone microdamage
and skeletal fragility in osteoporotic and stress fractures. J Bone Miner Res 12:6–15CrossRefPubMed 34. Eisman JA (2001) Good, good, good… good vibrations: the best option for better bones? Lancet 358:1924–1925CrossRefPubMed 35. Fritton SP, McLeod KJ, Rubin CT (2000) Quantifying the strain history of bone: spatial uniformity and self-similarity of low-magnitude
strains. J Biomech 33:317–325CrossRefPubMed 36. Duncan RL, Turner CH (1995) Mechanotransduction and the functional response of bone to mechanical strain. Calcif Tissue Int 57:344–358CrossRefPubMed 37. Warden SJ, Turner CH (2004) Mechanotransduction in the cortical bone is most efficient at loading frequencies of 5–10 Hz. Bone 34:261–270CrossRefPubMed 38. Garman R, Rubin C, Judex S (2007) SAR302503 cell line Small oscillatory accelerations, independent of matrix deformations, increase osteoblast activity and enhance bone morphology. PLoS ONE 25:e653CrossRef 39. Castillo AB, Alam I, Tanaka SM et al (2006) Low-amplitude, broad-frequency vibration effects on cortical bone formation in mice. Bone 39:1087–1096CrossRefPubMed
40. Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Browner WS et al (1995) Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. N Engl Astemizole J Med 332:767–773CrossRefPubMed”
“Introduction Increased rates of bone loss, osteoporosis, and osteoporotic fractures have been reported in adults with cardiovascular disease, suggesting an association between osteoporosis and atherosclerosis [1–3]. A few studies have suggested an association between osteoporosis and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in women [4–6], but studies in men yielded inconsistent results [5, 7]. Low bone mineral content at menopause appears to be a risk factor for increased cardiovascular disease mortality in later life [8–10]. To our knowledge, the association of PAD with osteoporotic fractures has not been reported. We report here a study examining the association between PAD based on the ankle–brachial index (ABI), with measures of bone health assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and fracture status in a large population-based sample of older men and women.