Beare et al.  hypothesized that the association between GG IV and chronic cases (as in 12 out of 13 chronic cases studied here) could be related to the slow growth of isolates from this genotype
and, therefore, the induction of a decrease in the immune response. On the other hand, Zhang et al. hypothesized that adaA positive strains were related to acute cases , as it is the case of the only sample from a patient with acute pneumonia available. However, in our study, acute cases of FID with liver involvement were all produced by adaA negative strains. GTs found in humans were also found in sheep, Selleck Stem Cell Compound Library goats, rats, wild boar and ticks. This distribution of GTs suggests that sheep and goats are responsible for the transmission of C. burnetii to humans in Spain, as in other areas , and exhibit a high variability of GT. However,
although in general domestic ruminants are important reservoirs for C. burnetii and play a relevant role in its transmission to humans, 4 of 24 human samples were found carrying GTs not found in ruminants in this work. A recent Spanish study  has also detected C. burnetii in roe deer, wild boar, carrion birds and hares. Although there is no data available on the genotyping of these specimens, more studies are needed to characterize the enzootic cycle of C. burnetii and its GT distribution Selleckchem Protease Inhibitor Library in wildlife, as well as to ascertain whether other sources could be responsible for the transmission of C. burnetii to humans. GG VII was only found in ticks (H. lusitanicum, Dermacentor marginatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus) and in 3 cases out of 10 of FID with liver involvement. It is to note that, while reference isolates from ticks belonged mostly to GG II, this GG has not been found in ticks in our study. Although the analyzed tick specimens came from 5 different areas, they were all from Central Spain,
which could be biasing this data. Transmission of Q fever by tick bite still remains controversial [41, 42], and cases of simultaneous Amisulpride or consecutive infections with C. burnetii and other tick-borne agents have been described . Whether C. burnetii can be transmitted by tick bite or not, the detection in ticks of GT VII-, found only in human patients revives this debate. More studies are needed to definitely clarify this question. On the other hand, given that GG VII isolates have not been found in cattle, sheep and goats in this study, we could think of other unknown reservoirs that could be involved as a source of infection of this GG for both ticks and humans. Traditional mammal species on which the tick species analyzed in this study feed on include rabbits (frequent all over Spain) for the immature stages of H.