4 We coupled a central concept

from plant community

\n\n4. We coupled a central concept

from plant community ecology with an evolutionary approach to separate the role of abiotic vs. biotic factors for local adaptation. This permits quantifying the importance of interactions with neighbours and we advocate CUDC-907 its use in future studies of local adaptation, which should be conducted over several years.”
“Purpose: To elucidate key elements surrounding acceptability/feasibility, language, and structure of a text message-based preventive intervention for high-risk adolescent females. Methods: We recruited high-risk 13- to 17-year-old females screening positive for past-year peer violence and depressive symptoms, during emergency department visits for any chief complaint. Participants completed semistructured interviews exploring preferences around text message preventive interventions. Interviews were conducted by trained interviewers, audio-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. A coding structure was iteratively developed using thematic and content analysis. Each transcript was double coded. NVivo 10 was used to facilitate analysis. Results: Saturation was reached after 20 interviews (mean age 15.4; 55% white; 40% Hispanic; 85% with cell phone access). (1) Acceptability/feasibility themes: A text-message intervention was felt to support and enhance

existing coping strategies. Participants had a few concerns about privacy and cost. Peer endorsement may increase uptake. (2) Language themes: Messages should be simple and positive. Tone should be conversational but not slang filled. (3) Structural themes: Messages may be automated but must be individually Savolitinib order tailored on a daily basis. Both predetermined (automatic) and as-needed messages are requested. Dose and timing of content should be varied according to participants’ needs. Multimedia may be helpful but is not necessary. Conclusions: High-risk adolescent females seeking emergency department care are enthusiastic about a text message-based preventive intervention. Incorporating thematic results on language and structure can inform development of future text

messaging interventions for Rapamycin price adolescent girls. Concerns about cost and privacy may be able to be addressed through the process of recruitment and introduction to the intervention. (C) 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.”
“Rationale: Myocardial infarction is a leading cause of death in developed nations, and there remains a need for cardiac therapeutic systems that mitigate tissue damage. Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) and other stem cell types are attractive candidates for treatment of myocardial infarction; however, the benefit of these cells may be as a result of paracrine effects. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that CPCs secrete proregenerative exosomes in response to hypoxic conditions.

Results: One hundred and four consecutive patients (150 lesions)

Results: One hundred and four consecutive patients (150 lesions) were enrolled. The mean age was 66.9 +/- 11.1 years. Complex lesions (ACC/AHA B2/C) occurred in 26.9%. Stents used: Cypher Select (54.1%), Xience V (30.6%), and Taxus Liberte (15.3%). The minimal stent diameter increased significantly with the duration of

stent inflation: 2.60 +/- 0.51, 2.76 +/- 0.51, and 2.82 +/- 0.52 mm at 5, 15, and 25 sec (P < 0.0001). Similarly, maximal stent diameter increased with the duration of stent inflation: 3.21 +/- 0.51, 3.32 +/- 0.52, and 3.36 +/- 0.54 mm (P < 0.0001). The average stent diameter also increased with longer stent inflation (P < 0.0001). Baf-A1 molecular weight Using MUSIC criteria 24.0, 53.3, and 68.0% of stents were appropriately expanded at 5, 15, and 25 sec (P < 0.0001).Conclusions: The duration of stent balloon inflation has a significant impact on stent expansion. Stent deployment for >25 sec is recommended. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“This study aimed to explore and evaluate the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic adnexal surgery using a two-port technique with a multichannel port, using a wound retractor,

as previously reported. A series of patients undergoing two-port laparoscopy for a benign pelvic GDC0068 mass were enrolled in this study. To perform two-port laparoscopic surgery, the ancillary 5-mm trocar was inserted at the left iliac fossa under laparoscopic view after umbilical trocar insertion. The inserted umbilical trocar was removed and the skin incision was extended about 1.5 cm with index-finger-passable width. An Alexis (R) wound retractor XS (Applied Medical, Santa Rancha Margarita, CA) was inserted through the umbilical wound. Two trocars were inserted into two fingers of a no. 6 surgical rubber glove and ligated with rubber bands. The wrist portion of the rubber glove covered the wound retractor, and the edge of the wound retractor was clamped with three Babcock clamps to prevent carbondioxide

gas leakage. Both a 10-mm laparoscope and atraumatic forceps were inserted through the umbilical multichannel port. Laparoscopic adnexal surgery was performed in the usual manner. A total of 19 patients were enrolled. The operative procedures were adnexectomy (n = 8), myomectomy (n = 1), and ovarian cystectomy and/or salpingectomy (n = 10). There were no operative complications, conversion to laparotomy, Selleckchem Y-27632 or additional trocar insertions. The mean operation time was 81.3 +/- 28.7 min. The pathologic diagnosis were mature cystic teratoma (n = 6), benign cyst (n = 4), endometrial cyst (n = 3), serous cystadenoma (n = 3), mucinous cystadenoma (n = 1), leiomyoma (n = 1), and tubo-ovarian abscess (n = 1). The mean postoperative hospital stay was 4.0 +/- 1.3 days. This two-port method seems to be safe and needs no additional cost from the use of the conventional laparoscopic instruments. It is also cosmetically effective and highly appreciated by patients, leaving minimal abdominal scarring.

The aims of this study

were to investigate the safety and

The aims of this study

were to investigate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention for “true” CTO, defined by Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade 0 and duration >= 3 months, and to compare the outcome of successful versus failed procedures. A cohort of 172 consecutive patients with de novo CTOs of native vessels confirmed by angiographic review in which percutaneous coronary interventions were attempted was studied. End points included angiographic success, in-hospital complications, and long-term major adverse cardiac events. Technical success was obtained in 73.8% of CTO lesions (127 of 172). No deaths or nonfatal Q-wave myocardial infarctions occurred in the hospital. Repeat percutaneous coronary interventions in the hospital were required selleck compound in 1.6% of patients (2 of 127) in whom the CTOs were initially opened. Perforation during the initial failed attempts occurred in 6.7% of patients (3 of 45). One patient required operative

repair. After an average follow-up period of 2 years, patients with successful procedures experienced similar incidences of cardiac death and nonfatal Q-wave myocardial infarctions as did patients with failed procedures (5.3% and 4.9%, respectively, p = 0.3). Patients with successfully opened arteries required target vessel revascularization more frequently, but this did not reach statistical significance (18.8% vs 0%, p = 0.06). In conclusion, attempts to open CTOs with the devices Caspase inhibitor available at the time of this registry were accompanied by a significant risk for perforation. Furthermore, successful recanalization did not translate into a reduction in 2-year mortality or nonfatal Q-wave myocardial infarctions compared with patients with failed procedures. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. (Am J Cardiol 2008;102:1175-1181)”
“Schizophrenia has been considered a devastating clinical syndromerather than a single disease. Nevertheless, the mechanisms behind the onset of schizophrenia

have been only partially elucidated. Several studies BX-795 nmr propose that levels of trace elements are abnormal in schizophrenia; however, conflicting data generated from different biological sources prevent conclusions being drawn. In this work, we used synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence spectroscopy to compare trace element levels in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from two clones of induced pluripotent stem cell lines of a clozapine-resistant schizophrenic patient and two controls. Our data reveal the presence of elevated levels of potassium and zinc in schizophrenic NPCs. Neural cells treated with valproate, an adjunctive medication for schizophrenia, brought potassium and zinc content back to control levels.

In contrast to other works we show patterned growth

of mu

In contrast to other works we show patterned growth

of multi walled CNTs on substrates with pre-structured bond pads including a complete metallization system for electrical characterization. Furthermore, we succeeded achieving a reliable flip chip connection between CNT-covered contact pads and metal pads at temperatures lower than 200 degrees C. Our goal is a reversible electrical and mechanical chip assembly with CNT bumps.\n\nFor bonding experiments and electrical characterization a test structure with a damascene metallization including a layer stack of TiN/Cu/TiN was prepared. For CNT growth a thin nickel catalyst layer was selectively deposited with sputtering and a lift-off technique on the contact pads. The CNTs were grown by thermal CVD with ethylene as carbon source. CNT growth parameters like catalyst thickness, gas composition, growth time and temperature were optimized to get dense

CNT growth. The metal bumps of the check details counter chip consist of electroless deposited Ni. With the selected layout we can obtain daisy chain and four-point measurements for lossless determination of single contact resistance. We have obtained Z-DEVD-FMK reliable electrical contacts with relatively small resistance reaching values as low as 2.2 Omega. As CNT-quality is strongly dependent on the growth temperature we observed a strong change in resistivity of the flip chip connection as the growth temperature was varied. Reliability tests showed long time stability under thermal

Smoothened Agonist cost stress proving a reliable electrical contact between the contact pads. There is an appropriate Potential for further optimization of the CNT bump resistance and applying this technology for IC-devices. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Use of herbal extracts and essences as natural antibacterial compounds has become increasingly popular for the control of oral infectious diseases. Therefore, finding natural antimicrobial products with the lowest side effects seems necessary. The present study sought to assess the effect of Punica granatum L. water extract on five oral bacteria and bacterial biofilm formation on orthodontic wire. Methods: Antibacterial property of P. granatum L. water extract was primarily evaluated in brain heart infusion agar medium using well-plate method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by macro-dilution method. The inhibitory effect on orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated using viable cell count in biofilm medium. At the final phase, samples were fixed and analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results: The growth inhibition zone diameter was proportional to the extract concentration. The water extract demonstrated the maximum antibacterial effect on Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556 with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.

The results also agree

with trends observed with other te

The results also agree

with trends observed with other terrestrial and aquatic communities that more biodiversity is needed to sustain multifunctionality compared to single functions considered independently.”
“We report a case of anaphylactoid shock with ventricular fibrillation and myocardial necrosis that Raf kinase assay occurred in a 61-year-old patient twenty minutes after eating cooked fish. An allergic cause was excluded by negative allergic explorations and good tolerance of subsequent fish consumption. A diagnosis of scombroid food poisoning (SFP) was made. SIP results from eating fish spoiled by inadequate refrigeration. The fish becomes contaminated by bacteria which then convert fish muscle histidine into histamine. Typical symptoms of histaminic intoxication include a metallic taste, erythema, sweating, nausea, diarrhea, palpitations, and sometimes facial oedema. Myocardial involvement is rare but not exceptional. SIP is the main differential diagnosis

in cases of suspected fish allergy. (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“In the present study we investigated the root-cause of an interference signal (100-200 nm) of sugar-containing solutions in dynamic light scattering (DLS) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and its consequences for the analysis of particles in biopharmaceutical drug products. Different sugars as well as sucrose of various purity grades, suppliers and

lots were analyzed by DLS and NTA before and (only for sucrose) after find more treatment by ultrafiltration and diafiltration. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), and fluorescence spectroscopy were employed. The intensity of the interference signal differed between sugar types, sucrose of various purity grades, suppliers, and batches of the same supplier. The interference signal could be successfully eliminated from a sucrose solution by ultrafiltration (0.02 mu m pore size). Nanoparticles, apparently composed of dextrans, ash components and aromatic colorants www.selleckchem.com/products/Nutlin-3.html that were not completely removed during the sugar refinement process, were found responsible for the interference and were successfully purified from sucrose solutions. The interference signal of sugar-containing solutions in DLS and NTA is due to the presence of nanoparticulate impurities. The nanoparticles present in sucrose were identified as agglomerates of various impurities originating from raw materials.”
“Mitochondria are dynamic and are able to interchange their morphology between elongated interconnected mitochondrial networks and a fragmented disconnected arrangement by the processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission, respectively.

Low baseline CD4 cell count < 100 cells/L was significantly re

Low baseline CD4 cell count < 100 cells/L was significantly related with HIV-related ophthalmic manifestations and CMV retinitis at presentation (P < 0.013). 105 patients were followed for 6 months or more and the mean follow-up was 4.8 years. There was no significant change

in visual acuity compared with baseline (P = 0.13). 20 (19.0%) patients had one eye with final visual acuity of 20/200 or worse and the leading cause for poor vision was CMV retinitis. 11 selleck chemical (10.5%) patients died during the follow-up due to complications of HIV/AIDS. The presence of HIV retinal microangiopathy was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.005).\n\nConclusions:\n\nCMV retinitis remains the main HIV-related ocular disease in the post-HAART era. HIV retinal microangiopathy might be an important prognostic factor for mortality. Appropriate ophthalmic monitoring is justified to detect for ophthalmic complications in HIV

patients regardless of HAART use in order for prompt initiation of treatment.”
“In this paper, the issue of designing an iterative-detection-and-decoding selleckchem (IDD)-aided receiver, relying on the low-complexity probabilistic data association (PDA) method, is addressed for turbo-coded multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems using general M-ary modulations. We demonstrate that the classic candidate-search-aided bit-based extrinsic log-likelihood ratio (LLR) calculation method is not applicable to the family of PDA-based detectors. Additionally, we reveal that, in contrast to the interpretation in the existing literature, the output symbol probabilities of existing

PDA algorithms are not the true a posteriori probabilities (APPs) but, rather, HM781-36B the normalized symbol likelihoods. Therefore, the classic relationship, where the extrinsic LLRs are given by subtracting the a priori LLRs from the a posteriori LLRs, does not hold for the existing PDA-based detectors. Motivated by these revelations, we conceive a new approximate Bayesian-theorem-based logarithmic-domain PDA (AB-Log-PDA) method and unveil the technique of calculating bit-based extrinsic LLRs for the AB-Log-PDA, which facilitates the employment of the AB-Log-PDA in a simplified IDD receiver structure. Additionally, we demonstrate that we may dispense with inner iterations within the AB-Log-PDA in the context of IDD receivers. Our complexity analysis and numerical results recorded for Nakagami-m fading channels demonstrate that the proposed AB-Log-PDA-based IDD scheme is capable of achieving a performance comparable with that of the optimal maximum a posteriori (MAP)-detector-based IDD receiver, while imposing significantly lower computational complexity in the scenarios considered.

YM155 displayed potent antitumor activities in both CAL27 xenogra

YM155 displayed potent antitumor activities in both CAL27 xenograft and transgenic HNSCC mice models by delaying tumor onset and suppressing tumor growth.

Furthermore, YM155 combined with docetaxel promoted HDAC inhibitor tumor regression better than either treatment alone without causing considerable body weight loss in the HNSCC xenograft models. Overall, targeting survivin by YM155 can benefit HNSCC therapy by increasing apoptotic and autophagic cell death, and suppressing prosurvival pathways.”
“Functional exhaustion of CD8(+) T cells due to increased expression of inhibitory molecule PD-1 (Programmed Death-1) causes reactivation of latent disease during later phases of chronic toxoplasmosis. Onset of disease recrudescence results in decreased parasite cyst burden concomitant with parasites undergoing stage conversion from a primarily encysted, quiescent bradyzoite to a fast-replicating, highly motile

tachyzoite. Thus, reduced cyst burden is one of the early hallmarks of disease recrudescence. This was further validated by depleting gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), a cytokine known to control latent toxoplasmosis, in chronically infected prerecrudescent mice. Since CD8(+) T cells (an important source of IFN-gamma) lose their functionality during the later phases HIF inhibitor of chronic toxoplasmosis, we next examined if adoptive transfer of functional CD8(+) T cells from acutely infected donors to the chronically infected prerecrudescent hosts could impede parasite de-encystation and rescue exhausted

CD8(+) T cells. While the transfer of immune CD8(+) T cells temporarily restricted the breakdown MLN8237 of cysts, the exhausted endogenous CD8(+) T cell population was not rescued. Over time, the donor population got deleted, resulting in parasite de-encystation and host mortality. Considering that donor CD8(+) T cells fail to become long-lived, one of the cardinal features of memory CD8(+) T cells, it bears the implication that memory CD8 differentiation is impaired during chronic toxoplasmosis. Moreover, our data strongly suggest that while adoptive immunotherapy can prevent parasite de-encystation transiently, reduced antigen burden in the chronic phase by itself is insufficient for rescue of exhausted CD8(+) T cells. The conclusions of this study have profound ramifications in designing immunotherapeutics against chronic toxoplasmosis.”
“Green tea catechins have been reported to have antitumor activity. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of catechins on the antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX) in a murine model for chemoresistant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) are the most abundant polyphenolic compounds in green tea.

Significantly fewer participants used rescue medication with keto

Significantly fewer participants used rescue medication with ketoprofen and dexketoprofen than placebo. The median time to remedication was about 5 hours with ketoprofen and 4 hours with dexketoprofen. The expected equivalent efficacy with a half dose of

dexketoprofen compared to ketoprofen was not demonstrated.\n\nAdverse events were uncommon with both drugs, and not significantly different from placebo.\n\nAuthors’ conclusions\n\nKetoprofen at doses of 25 mg to 100 mg is an effective analgesic in moderate to severe acute postoperative pain with an NNT for at least 50% pain relief of 3.3 with a 50 mg dose. This is similar to that of commonly used NSAIDs such as ibuprofen (NNT 2.5 for 400 mg dose) and diclofenac (NNT 2.7 at 50 mg dose). Duration of action is about 5 hours. Dexketoprofen is also effective with NNTs of 3.2 to 3.6 in the dose range 10 mg to 25 mg. Both drugs were well tolerated in single doses.”
“Bee males (drones) of stingless bees tend Quisinostat cost to congregate near entrances of conspecific nests, where they wait for virgin queens that initiate their nuptial flight. We observed that the Neotropical solitary wasp Trachypus boharti (Hymenoptera, Cabronidae) specifically preys on males of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Apidae); these wasps captured up to 50 males per

day near the entrance of a single hive. Over 90% of the wasp attacks were unsuccessful; such erroneous attacks often involved conspecific AZD1208 manufacturer wasps and worker bees. After the capture of non-male prey, wasps almost immediately released these individuals unharmed and continued hunting. A simple behavioral experiment showed that at short distances wasps Selleckchem Epigenetic inhibitor were not specifically attracted to S. postica males nor were they repelled by workers of the same

species. Likely, short-range prey detection near the bees’ nest is achieved mainly by vision whereas close-range prey recognition is based principally on chemical and/or mechanical cues. We argue that the dependence on the wasp’s visual perception during attack and the crowded and dynamic hunting conditions caused wasps to make many preying attempts that failed. Two wasp-density-related factors, wasp-prey distance and wasp-wasp encounters, may account for the fact that the highest male capture and unsuccessful wasp bee encounter rates occurred at intermediate wasp numbers.”
“Lymphedema results from impaired lymphatic transport with increased limb volume. Cellulitis is the main complication, but psychological or functional discomfort may occur throughout the course of lymphedema. Lymphedema management is based on complete decongestive physiotherapy (multilayer low stretch bandage, manual lymph drainage, skin care, exercises). First phase of treatment leads to a reduction of lymphedema volume. The second phase stabilizes the volume and is based on elastic compression. Resection surgery is a useful tool in external genitalia lymphedema. (C) 2012 Societe nationale francaise de medecine interne (SNFMI).

The molecular weights

The molecular weights MGCD0103 cell line of the precursors are smaller than the critical molecular

weight for the onset of entanglement coupling. The relaxation time of the elastomers (tau(D)) is proportional to the square of the molecular weight of the dangling chains equivalent to the monofunctional PBA (M(D)), and tau(D) is about 2.5 times larger than the relaxation time of the corresponding free guest chains in the elastomers (tau(G)). These observations are close to the expectations from the Rouse-chain dynamics without entanglement effect (tau(D) similar to M(D)(2) and tau(D) = 4 tau(G)). These results provide an important basis for the understanding of the dynamics of the unentangled chains whose one end is tethered to the permanent networks. The results also offer a route of molecular control of characteristic frequency and strength of mechanical

damping of elastomers.”
“Purpose Resident burnout continues to be a major problem despite work hours restrictions. The authors conducted a longitudinal study to learn more determine whether burnout in internal medicine residents is persistent and what factors predispose residents to persistent burnout.\n\nMethod The authors mailed a survey to internal medicine residents at the University of Colorado Denver Health Science Center each May, from 2003 through 2008. The survey measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory organized into three subscales: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment. The BMS-777607 ic50 authors defined burned-out residents as having a high EE or DP score and persistent burnout as being burned out during all three years of residency.\n\nResults Of the 179 eligible residents, 86 (48%) responded to the survey during all three years of their residency. Sixty-seven residents (78%) were burned out at least once: 58 residents (67%) were burned out during their internship, 58 (67%) during their second year, and 50 (58%) during their third year (P <.08).

Of the 58 burned-out interns, 42 (72%) continued to be burned out through their three years of training. Persistent burnout was more likely to occur in men (OR = 3.31, P <.01) and was associated with screening positive for depression as an intern (OR = 4.4, P <.002).\n\nConclusions Once present, burnout tends to persist through residency. Men and residents who screened positive for depression as interns are at the highest risk for persistent burnout. Interventions to prevent burnout during internship may significantly decrease burnout throughout residency.”
“Background: Projects are an important tool in faculty development, and project emphasis may offer insights into perceived education priorities. Impact of projects has been focused on individuals, not institutions or health.

The profile accurately predicts position-dependent ribosomal dens

The profile accurately predicts position-dependent ribosomal density along yeast genes. These data suggest that translation speed and, as a consequence, ribosomal density are encoded by coding sequences and the tRNA pool. We suggest that the slow “ramp” at the beginning of mRNAs serves as a late stage of translation initiation, forming an optimal and robust means to reduce ribosomal traffic jams, thus minimizing the cost of protein expression.”
“Cyclic octapeptide

carrying one or two nonlinear signaling pathway optical chromophores, disperse red 1 (DR-1). was synthesized and Immobilized on a substrate to attain an active surface for second-harmonic generation (SHG). Each cyclic octapeptide was transfer-red on a Fused quartz substrate by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method to afford a uniform monolayer. ABT 263 Infrared

reflection-absorption spectroscopy of the LB monolayer revealed that the cyclic skeleton lay roughly flat on the surface. The SHG intensity from the monolayer of the cyclic peptide with two DR-1 units was stronger than that from that with one DR-1 unit. The difference Is discussed in terms of molecular orientation and surface density of the active chromophores. The cyclic peptide is shown here to be an effective scaffold to modify a substrate surface with functional groups of a monolayer with taking stability of the monolayer and orientation of the functional group into consideration. Copyright (c) 2008 European

Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate differences in patient presentation and short- and long-term outcomes between patients dichotomized by the level of preoperative s-creatinine (s-crea) without renal failure and to use EuroSCORE (ES) risk stratification for validating differences and for predictive purposes. Methods: A thousand consecutive cardiac surgery patients from January 1999 through May 2000 were analyzed. Patients with off-pump surgery or s-crea >200 mu mol/l (>2.2 mg/dl) were excluded leaving 885 patients for analysis. Group 1 (n=703) had s-crea 0.5-1.2 mg/dl and Group 2 (n=182) had elevated s-crea 1.3-2.2 mg/dl but no renal insufficiency. 3-MA mouse Results: Group 2 patients were older (P<0.0001), had a higher percentage of males (P=0.008), had lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (P=0.001), had higher New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification (P<0.0001), had more diabetics (P=0.001) and had more patients with a history of congestive heart failure (CHF) (P<0.0001). Both additive ES (AES) and logistic ES (LES) variables were higher in Group 2 patients, AES 8.45 +/- 4.28% vs. 6.05 +/- 3.80% (P<0.0001) and LES 17.7 +/- 19.1% vs. 9.57 +/- 13.3% (P<0.0001). Proportions of emergency operations and use of intra-aortic balloon pulsation (IABP) support did not differ.