The 8 groups are: normal saline blank control group (blank group)

The 8 groups are: normal saline blank control group (blank group), TNBS model group (TNBS group), NF-κB missense oligonucleotide treatment

negative contrast I, II, III group (MSODN I, II, III click here group), NF-κB Decoy ODN treatment I, II, III group (Decoy ODN I, II, III group). 3. Observation indexes and test methods All groups of mice get executed by cervical vertebra dislocation one week after the last enema in order to get colon tissue. Use HE staining to evaluate the degree of inflammation of the colon tissue, VG staining to assess the degree of intestinal fibrosis. Use RT – PCR to detect the expression of IL- 1β, TNF – α and Col- III mRNA, immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of NF-κB and TGF-β1 protein of colon tissue. Results: 1. General situation and DAI score: The mice of blank group are normal diet, free movement, hair luster, no death during experimental; The mice of TNBS

group, MSODN I, II, III group are less diet, weight loss, exercise less, hair dull, diarrhea, stool occult blood, even the naked eye bloody stool within 3 days after enema weekly, four days later the symptoms gradually reduced, during the experiment, adverse symptoms mainly Angiogenesis inhibitor concentrate in the first three weeks, symptoms tend to be stable after three weeks, death mainly concentrate in the first three weeks; The mice of Decoy ODN I, II, III group can appear aforementioned symptoms, but to a lesser degree, adverse symptoms mainly concentrate in the first three days, then tend to be stable, during the experiment, MCE due to the different treatment of administration, adverse symptoms concentrate at different time, 3–4 weeks are more obvious, no death. The DAI score of each group: The DAI score of blank group is lower than other experimental groups and has statistical significance (P < 0.05); TNBS group and MSODN I, II, III group have no statistical significance (P > 0.05); The DAI scores of Decoy ODN

I, II, III group are lower than TNBS group, MSODN I, II, III group and have statistical significance (P < 0.05); Decoy ODN I, II, III group have statistical significance among three groups (P < 0.05). 2. General observation and pathological manifestation: The mice of blank group colon tissue appear reddish, no special change by macroscopic observation. The mice of TNBS group, MSODN I, II, III group can observe that visible deformation of colon bowel, thicken adhesion of bowel wall, and hyperemia, edema, erosion, ulcer, even nodule; The mice of Decoy ODN I, II, III group can appear aforementioned changes, but to a lesser degree, and no visible deformation of colon bowel, thicken adhesion of bowel wall, the degree of Decoy ODN III group is the lightest.

4 A total of 81 cases of patients with cirrhosis of the liver ba

4. A total of 81 cases of patients with cirrhosis of the liver basis, of which 39 patients received chemoembolization, the median survival was 4.08 months, 42 patients received embolization, the median survival of 3.5 months, The average of TTP, mediansurvival and survival curves difference between two groups of patients has not statistically significant.j Conclusion: TAE was effective and safety for primary hepatocellular carcinoma associated with ascites, leukopenia, and portal vein tumor thrombus, liver cirrhosis. Key Word(s): 1. TACE,; 2. HCC; 3. leukopenia; Presenting

Author: LILI DING Additional Authors: JUNPU GAO, QIJUN NIU Corresponding Author: LILI DING Affiliations: jilin university Objective: The objective of the present study was to explore check details the different metabolic substances in sera between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). We used the metabonomic method to profiling the sera among liver cirrhosis, this website liver cancer

and normal persons, and find potential tumor biomarkers. Methods: UPLC/Q-TOF-MS was utilized to profile the different metabolic substances in sera among 29 cases of liver cirrhosis which induced by HBV and HCV respectively, 38 and 32 cases of HCC sera which induced by HBV and HCV respectively, and

30 cases of normal persons. We got retention time, m/z and total electrories 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 strength related figure, then matched peaks, normalized these peaks, and analysed the data with PCA and PLS methods, matched these substances with human metabonomics database, the different substances between each team may be the potential biomarkers. Results: Metabolic substances in liver cirrhosis caused by HBV and HCV had no differences. Twenty-six substances were identified as potential tumor markers, ten compounds were identified as: LysoPC (20 : 1), LysoPC (20 : 2), LysoPC (P-18 : 0), LysoPC (P-18 : 0), LysoPC (15 : 0), arachidonic acid, hemolysis phosphatidyl choline, carnitine, glycine, tryptophan, N-Arachidonoyl glycine. Conclusion: There were no differences between liver cirrhosis between HBV and HCV induced liver cancer in metabolites level. Through analysising liver cirrhosis and liver cancer sera, Twenty-six different substances were found, LysoPC (20 : 1), LysoPC (20 : 2), LysoPC (P-18 : 0), LysoPC (P-18 : 0), LysoPC (15 : 0), arachidonic acid, hemolysis phosphatidyl choline, carnitine (C18 : 1), carnitine (C18 : 2), glycine, tryptophan, N-Arachidonoyl glycine, they are the potential tumor biomarkers of HCC. Key Word(s): 1. Metabonomics; 2. HCC; 3. liver cirrhosis; 4.

“Purpose: Part 2 of this survey reports on the 2009 survey

“Purpose: Part 2 of this survey reports on the 2009 survey findings distributed to the deans of US dental schools. A national, electronic survey of 58 dental school deans was distributed by e-mail to evaluate an interest in specialty training, an interest in specialty training in prosthodontics, faculty shortage issues, predoctoral curriculum in prosthodontics, ideology regarding dental specialties, and the administrative position of prosthodontics within the schools. Materials and Methods: The survey data were transferred to an online spreadsheet program for statistical analysis (Key Survey, Inc., Braintree, MA). The opinions of dental school deans were viewed as

legitimate indicators of change within predoctoral and postdoctoral prosthodontic education. Statistical analysis was carried out using Statistica

Version 9.1 (Statsoft, Tulsa, OK). Results: HDAC inhibitor Of the 58 deans, 42 deans responded, for a 72.4% response rate. Twenty-three deans reported an increase in the number of students seeking specialty training after dental school. Only three deans reported a decrease in those seeking specialty training. In the 2009 survey, 45% the deans responded that there was an increased interest in prosthodontics. One or more open faculty positions in prosthodontics existed at 24 (59%) of the dental schools, and 30 (71%) offered at least one incentive or a variety of incentives to recruit faculty. The 2009 respondents to the deans’ survey revealed predoctoral Nutlin-3 research buy student exposure to prosthodontists was high, and exposure to advanced education in prosthodontics students was low. A survey of internal school programs that might have an impact on an increased interest in prosthodontics revealed the presence of a predoctoral

mentoring program for prosthodontics in 36 (88%) of the institutions. The clinical curriculum included treatment of a variety of cases including complex cases as defined by a diagnostic classification system. The 2009 survey respondents reported an increase in the number of schools where prosthodontics is a separate 上海皓元 entity or department. Conclusion: Deans reported an increased interest in prosthodontics in the 2009 survey. Open faculty positions in prosthodontics existed in the majority of dental schools, and most schools offered incentives to recruit faculty. The survey of deans found a very high level of exposure of dental students to full-time prosthodontists and a very low exposure level to students enrolled in advanced education in prosthodontics. The establishment of mentoring programs in prosthodontics was reported by most deans, and the predoctoral curriculum included treating complex cases. Most deans stated that dual-specialty training in prosthodontics and periodontics would be beneficial. The 2009 survey reported an increase in the number of departments of prosthodontics in US schools.

Treatment was stopped in patients with detectable HCV RNA at week

Treatment was stopped in patients with detectable HCV RNA at week 24 (nonresponders). Patients with undetectable HCV RNA at the end of the planned course of treatment (end-of-treatment [EoT] responders) were followed up for 24 weeks. SVR was defined as undetectable HCV RNA (50 IU/mL) at end of follow-up.

Conversely, virologic relapse was defined as detection of HCV RNA (≥50 IU/mL) at the end of follow-up in Selleckchem Ganetespib a patient with an EoT virologic response. Quantitative serum HCV RNA tests were done with the COBAS AMPLICOR HCV Monitor Test, v. 2.0 (limit of quantification 600 IU/mL). Qualitative tests were done with the COBAS AMPLICOR HCV Test, v. 2.0 (limit of detection 50 IU/mL). Samples with undetectable HCV RNA by the qualitative test were retested with the more sensitive Roche TaqMan assay (limit of detection 10 IU/mL). Whole blood samples obtained and stored in ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-containing collection tubes were used for IL28B genotype testing. DNA was subsequently isolated and the rs12979860 SNP in the region of the IL28B gene was analyzed by the StepOnePlus Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) with a custom TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay developed in collaboration with Applied Biosystems as described.23 Gene sequences were obtained from the NCBI Entrez

SNP Database (http://www.ncbi.nlm. GCCTGTCGTGTACTGAACCA was used as the forward and GCGCGGAGTGCAAT TCAA as the reverse primer in the genotyping medchemexpress assay for rs12979860. All statistical calculations were LEE011 manufacturer done with SigmaPlot v. 11 (Systat Software, Erkrath, Germany). Treatment outcome (SVR or relapse) was analyzed by χ2

test in the various treatment groups by IL28B genotype (C/C versus T/C or T/T). Only patients who completed treatment as per protocol and with known EoT and end-of-follow-up (SVR or relapse) results were included in the analysis of relapse and SVR. This ensured that the analysis of outcome by treatment duration was not confounded by the inclusion of patients who withdrew prematurely and received less than the planned duration of treatment. All patients included in this analysis provided informed written consent to rs12979860 genotype testing. The IL28B rs12979860 polymorphism was determined for 340 of 551 (61.7%) study participants overall. Across the four treatment groups the proportion of patients represented in the rs12979860 genotype analysis ranged from 60% to 67% of the original intention-to-treat (ITT) population (Fig. 1). The overall rs12979860 genotype frequency was C/C: 115 (33.8%), T/C: 175 (51.5%), and T/T: 50 (14.7%). The baseline characteristics of these patients are shown in Table 1 and the rs12979860 genotype frequencies are presented by treatment group in Fig. 2.

05), the XIAP expression of extent of the ulcer before and after

05), the XIAP expression of extent of the ulcer before and after treatment no significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Smac expression to promote apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells, may lead to gastric ulcers, the development and impact

of its healing; XIAP high expression may play an important role in the healing of mucosal repair, and ulcers. Smac and XIAP may be an important part of the HP-induced gastric ulcer occurs apoptosis signaling network. Key Word(s): 1. Gastric ulcer; 2. Smac; 3. XIAP; 4. apoptosis; Presenting Author: YING LUO Additional Authors: LINGXIAO BU, YIQI WANG, HONGWEI SHA Corresponding selleck products Author: YIQI WANG Affiliations: Guangdong General Hospital Objective: Gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaires (GerdQ) has been applied as a screening diagnostic test for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in western country. But the value of GerdQ in Chinese people remained uncertain. So the aims of the study were to assess the validation of GerdQ for the diagnosis of GERD and to explore the optimal diagnostic critical value of GerdQ for Chinese people. Methods: Patients with heartburn and/or regurgitation selected from outpatient service were presented with a six-item GerdQ, which included heartburn, reflux, epigastric pain, nausea, sleep disturbance, and additional medicine. Gastroscopy

and 24-hour esophageal pH-impedance monitoring were also carried out in these patients. The patients with esophagus erosion under gastroscopy or/and the DeMeester Score PD0325901 research buy medchemexpress more than 14.72 were diagnosed as GERD. The results were compared with GerdQ score to determine the diagnostic cut-off score for GERD. Results: A total of 122 patients with reflux-related symptoms were questionaired, including 63 male and 59 female. When the GerdQ cut-off score came to 9, the maximal Youden index was 0.358 and the area under receiver operating characteristic was 0.699, with the sensitivity of

80.23%, specificity of 55.56%, as well as the true positive diagnostic rate of 81.18% and true negative diagnostic rate of 54.05%. Conclusion: GerdQ is approved as a suitable, easy handle method in initial diagnosis of GERD. The diagnostic score of GerdQ for Chinese people is 9, which is different from that for western people. Key Word(s): 1. GERD; 2. GerdQ; 3. gastroscopy; 4. pH monitoring; Presenting Author: GALYNAD. FADIEIENKO Additional Authors: OLHAV. CHYRVA Corresponding Author: GALYNAD. FADIEIENKO, OLHAV. CHYRVA Affiliations: SI “Institute of Therapy named after L.T. Malaya of NAMS of Ukraine Objective: Combination of neurocirculatory dystonia (NCD) and functional dyspepsia (FD) is often associated with the phenomenon of mutual burdening and has a potential role in quality of life in young patients. The study was designed to assess the main indices of quality of life in these patients. Methods: 69 persons from organized student population (21 males, 48 females) aged 18 – 27 with cardial form of NCD were included in this study.

More recently, we have directly demonstrated that hydrazine, but

More recently, we have directly demonstrated that hydrazine, but not the parent INH, inhibited solubilized mitochondrial

complex II isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.[18] This resulted in increased superoxide GSK-3 activity formation at complex II (due to a one-electron reduction of molecular oxygen). In addition, complex II inhibition could also create a potentially dangerous situation when the functional integrity of complex I is compromised. Under normal conditions, complex I activity might easily compensate for hydrazine-mediated inhibition of complex II, still feeding electrons into the electron transport chain and reducing ubiquinone (Fig. 3). However, if complex I is inhibited chemically or by an underlying genetic change, then this would likely lead to a collapse of energy homeostasis. To test this hypothesis, we co-exposed cultured mouse hepatocytes to INH (which alone is not toxic over a wide concentration range) and the complex I inhibitors, rotenone (3 μM), or piericidin A (30 nM), both at nontoxic concentrations.[18] This led to a massive energy crisis (rapid loss of cellular ATP) and hepatocyte demise. Pretreatment with the acyl amidase inhibitor BNPP protected against the cell injury in a concentration-dependent manner,

indicating that it was hydrazine (or acetylhydrazine), rather than the parent INH, that was responsible for the toxicity (Fig. 3). In the clinical setting, certain drugs that are co-administered with INH, and that are potential inhibitors of complex I, might similarly potentiate the hepatocellular toxicity of INH via these mechanisms. For example, efavirenz

(EFV) a widely Ridaforolimus clinical trial used non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, is often administered together with an antitubercular therapy in patients as part of a combined antiretroviral therapy against HIV infection. EFV has been associated with liver toxicity in patients;[64] in experimental models, EFV induced endoplasmic reticulum 上海皓元 stress, mitophagy, oxidant stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction in hepatocytes.[64-69] Earlier studies had shown that EFV decreases oxygen consumption in isolated rat liver mitochondria if the mitochondria were energized with glutamate/malate, but not with succinate, suggesting that EFV selectively compromised complex I function.[65] We recently demonstrated that EFV concentration-dependently inhibited mitochondrial complex I activity in isolated mouse liver mitochondria (Lee and Boelsterli, unpublished, 2014). Importantly, exposure of cultured mouse hepatocytes to a combination of EFV and INH (both at nontoxic concentrations if used alone) caused a rapid collapse of the cellular ATP levels and greatly potentiated the cellular toxicity of INH (Lee and Boelsterli, unpublished, 2014), further highlighting the potential for underlying mitochondrial changes to precipitate INH-induced cell injury. The host (patient) greatly contributes to the risk for developing INH-associated liver injury.

Interestingly, based on data from 39 patients with haemophilia A,

Interestingly, based on data from 39 patients with haemophilia A, we found

variable levels of endogenous thrombin potential (from <10% to approximately 58%) in patients with <1% FVIII in plasma [17]. In the field of haemophilia not complicated by the presence of inhibitors, the potential applications of the TGA include: assessment of the coagulation profile in patients with similar residual levels of FVIII/FIX activities but different bleeding phenotypes; monitoring of treatment regimens such as prophylaxis (e.g. correlation with trough factor levels and/or incidence of breakthrough bleeds). Phenotype characterization is an interesting issue for both haemophilia A and B, PF 01367338 particularly as wide variability exists in the clinical expression of the disease. To investigate this aspect, we evaluated adult patients with severe haemophilia with no history selleck screening library of inhibitors and treated exclusively on-demand in a single centre, case-control study [18]. Cases included patients classified as mild bleeders (≤2 spontaneous bleeding episodes/year and an annual factor consumption lower than 500 IU kg−1); controls were patients with more than two spontaneous bleeds per year and a factor consumption >500 IU kg−1year−1 (a subgroup

of controls had a markedly severe bleeding tendency: 25 or more bleeding episodes per year and an annual factor consumption >2000 IU kg−1). Based on the clinical characteristics of cases and controls, we found that patients with severe haemophilia B were significantly more represented among mild bleeders than controls (32% vs. 8%, P = 0.03). Moreover, cases with their first bleed at a significantly older age, had significantly fewer bleeds/year,

MCE公司 lower factor use and better orthopaedic and Pettersson scores than controls (severe bleeders) [18]. Mild bleeders also had significantly higher thrombin generation (expressed as endogenous thrombin potential in platelet-rich plasma) than controls (severe bleeders). According to univariate analysis, haemophilia B was a variable associated with a mild bleeding tendency as well as higher thrombin generation in patients with this tendency; higher levels of factor antigens were also associated with a mild bleeding tendency. After adjusting for other variables, the only significant factor was the type of factor mutation, meaning that less severe gene defects were associated with a mild bleeding tendency. The overall conclusion from this study is that the TGA may be used to detect the coagulation phenotype, but the role of mutation is related to the presence/absence of antigen in plasma which may be related to the thrombin generation that we observed in the plasma of our patients, warranting further research.

All but one failure in the EGD group was secondary to a lack of a

All but one failure in the EGD group was secondary to a lack of a bulge seen in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.[54] Park et al. published the results of another randomized trial which showed similar results with eight patients with no bulge crossing over to successful EUS drainage, with all patients in the study having eventual successful drainage.[55] In a study published by Fockens et al.,

the use of EUS changed management in 37.5% of pseudocyst drainages because of a multitude of unexpected findings.[56] If there is any doubt as to whether a fluid collection represents a pseudocyst or WOPN, EUS can be particularly helpful at identifying Y 27632 whether or not necrotic debris is present within the collection. Overall results suggest that if a bulge is seen in the GI tract, then drainage can be performed with or without EUS while patients without a visible bulge should receive EUS drainage. In summary, endoscopic treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts this website appears to be effective, with a 94% initial success rate, 20% complication rate, and a 90% cyst resolution rate. Recurrences approximate 16% and procedural mortality is less than 1%.[57] Because of the risk of adverse events, endoscopic drainage is best done in settings with significant experience and a multidisciplinary team. Alternative drainage options include surgery or percutaneous drainage. Care must be taken to ensure that a collection does not

represent WOPN before planning simple transmural drainage. Disconnected duct syndrome is a pancreatic duct leak with a complete transection of the main pancreatic duct resulting in an isolated segment of the proximal (tail) portion of the pancreas. This generally occurs as a result of severe acute pancreatitis with pancreatic necrosis and can be seen in up to 50% of these patients.[58] This results in the entire upstream portion of the pancreas being isolated and not in communication with the papilla. This isolated segment of the pancreas will continue to produce its exocrine pancreatic juices which will be secreted

freely into the abdominal cavity resulting in a significant fistula. This type of fistula is not amenable to transpapillary stenting. The isolated portion of the pancreas cannot be reached from the papilla and therefore the leak medchemexpress cannot be bridged endoscopically. Historically, DDS has required surgical excision of the isolated tail segment of the pancreas. However, several endoscopic and interventional alternatives have been developed, although treatment success remains variable.[59] Endoscopic management of DDS has been described in several series and reviews.[2, 38, 52, 58, 60, 61] This method employs transmural drainage of fluid collections as described in the previous section for treatment of pseudocysts; however, the transmural stents are left in place indefinitely. Leaving the transmural stents in place creates an outlet for the pancreatic juice from the isolated tail segment of the pancreas.

Relative protein expression levels were quantified by specific pr

Relative protein expression levels were quantified by specific protein/GAPDH ratio, which are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD) from three independent experiments (listed in Supporting Table 2). Cell proliferation was measure by a methyl

thiazol tetrazolium (MTT)-based proliferation assay, as described before.[10] Caspase-3/7 activity was determined using the Caspase-Glo 3/7 assay system (Promega, Madison, WI). Anchorage-independent soft-agar growth assay and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed as previously described.[10] Cell lysates were incubated with indicated Daporinad molecular weight Staurosporine mw Abs and protein A/G beads

(Life Technologies Corporation, Carlsbad, CA) overnight. Immunoprecipitates were washed five times and then subjected to immunoblotting analysis. Luciferase reporter constructs containing the YAP promoter region were cloned into pGL3-based vectors, then stably cotransfected with a Renila luciferase expression plasmid into cells. Luciferase activities were analyzed using a dual-luciferase reporter kit (Promega). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was performed using the ChIP-IT express kit from Active Motif (Carlsbad, CA). Protein-DNA 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 complexes were incubated with 3 μg of anti-CREB Abs (#1496; Epitomics). HepG2 cells (5× 106) expressing shRNA or protein, as indicated, were subcutaneously (SC) injected into athymic nude mice (Bikai, Shanghai, China). Tumor size was measured every 6 days using a caliper, and tumor volume was calculated as 0.5 × L × W2, with

L indicating length and W indicating width. Mice were euthanized at 45 days after injection. We examined whether YAP and CREB were important for liver cancer cells. YAP- or CREB-specific shRNAs with high knockdown efficiency (Supporting Fig. 1) were used to silence expression in both Bel-7402 and HepG2 cells. We found that inhibition of either YAP or CREB decreased cell proliferation, compared to control, as measured by an MTT-based assay and Ki-67 immunostaining (Fig. 1A and data not shown). Furthermore, we found that both YAP and CREB knockdown impaired the ability of these cells to form colonies in soft agar (Fig. 1B), whereas they markedly increased apoptosis, as shown by increased caspase 3/7 activity and caspase 3 cleavage (Fig. 1C and data not shown).

1a) without infiltration of inflammatory mononuclear cells Hepat

1a) without infiltration of inflammatory mononuclear cells. Hepatic triglyceride content was measured to quantify the degree of steatosis. The triglyceride click here content was significantly greater in OVX transgenic mice than in mice in the other three groups (Fig. 1b),

which was consistent with the results for hepatic steatosis. Thus, the increase in the serum ALT level in the OVX transgenic mice was thought to reflect the hepatic steatosis. Only OVX transgenic mice showed marked hepatic steatosis, regardless of the comparable diet intake and the ratio of liver to bodyweight of OVX non-transgenic mice (Table 1). We have previously demonstrated that iron-overloaded male FL-N/35 transgenic mice expressing the HCV polyprotein develop severe hepatic steatosis AG-014699 in vitro through increased ROS production.[11] Therefore, we examined

whether ROS production was relevant to the marked hepatic steatosis observed in the OVX transgenic mice. Ovariectomy significantly increased ROS (superoxide) production in both transgenic mice and non-transgenic mice, but the level of ROS production was greater in the OVX transgenic mice than in the OVX non-transgenic mice (Fig. 2). We next measured inflammatory cytokine levels in the liver. Ovariectomy significantly increased hepatic expression of IL-6 mRNA to the same degree in both transgenic mice and non-transgenic mice (Fig. 3). This ovariectomy-induced increase in hepatic IL-6 mRNA was consistent with the results of a previous report that OVX mice produced more hepatic IL-6 than non-OVX mice after chemically induced liver injury.[5] There also was a trend for increase in TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA expression after ovariectomy in both the transgenic mice and non-transgenic mice, but their increases did not reach statistical significance, probably because of the large deviation (Fig. 3). These results suggested that inflammatory

cytokines were unlikely to be associated with greater ROS production in OVX transgenic mice than in OVX non-transgenic mice. We previously reported that male medchemexpress FL-N/35 transgenic mice developed hepatic iron accumulation through the reduced transcription of hepcidin,[18] a negative regulator in iron homeostasis.[21, 22] Excess divalent iron can be highly toxic, mainly via the Fenton reaction producing hydroxyl radicals.[23] Therefore, we measured hepatic iron content to assess whether greater ROS production resulted from increased hepatic iron accumulation in OVX transgenic mice. Unexpectedly, ovariectomy significantly decreased hepatic iron content to the same degree in both transgenic mice and non-transgenic mice (Fig. 4a). These results are potentially explained by significantly increased transcription of hepcidin after ovariectomy (Fig. 4b).