At two hospitals in Southwest London comprising an international

At two hospitals in Southwest London comprising an international population with an African heterosexual predominance, there was a 5% prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia in newly diagnosed patients with CD4 count < 100 cells/μL. Almost all of the CRAG positive patients were African, though the statistical power of the comparison of proportion of African patients between the CRAG positive (88%) and negative (54%) groups was limited by the cohort size. This relatively high prevalence of cryptococcal infection, on a par with some African countries, reflects our African HIV patient predominance, and may not

be generalizable to all UK HIV cohorts. Our numbers may also have been augmented by a tertiary centre referral bias of complex HIV patients Selleckchem Stem Cell Compound Library with advanced disease and CM for specialist Infectious Diseases inpatient care. Four of the 8 patients had been transferred to St George’s from hospitals in our sector, for whom we did not have a new HIV diagnoses denominator. Excluding those transfers would result in a conservative estimate of prevalence of cryptococcal infection in newly diagnosed HIV patients with CD4 < 100 cells/μL in southwest London of 3% (4/153), and 5% (4/84) in Africans. In our cohort, almost all the CRAG positive patients were only diagnosed with HIV at the time of presentation with CM. Late HIV diagnoses are not exclusive to resource-limited countries: in 2010, 28% of new UK HIV diagnoses

had CD4 counts < 200 cells/μL17 and in North America in 2008, 33% of newly HIV-diagnosed patients developed

AIDS Alectinib purchase within one year.18 By ethnicity, late presentation is highest amongst Black Africans,17 and the National Institute for Clinical Excellence is promoting increased HIV testing in this group.19 For our African CRAG positive patients with known time between arrival to the UK and new HIV diagnosis, this ranged from 5 to 16 years, suggesting opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis and ART, which might have prevented dissemination of latent cryptococcal infection occurring at lower CD4 counts. For those diagnosed late, the question remains whether CRAG screening at HIV diagnosis should be routinely recommended. To be effective, screening needs to be done prior to symptomatic presentation within the antigenemic window, which ranges from weeks to months.8 Current BHIVA guidelines20 recommend the excluding cryptococcal infection in symptomatic patients with CD4 < 200 cells/μL but do not advocate routine screening or fluconazole prophylaxis. CM is not a reportable disease: HPA figures of new CM diagnoses in the UK between 2006 and 2011 range from 5 to 28 cases/year, suggesting significant underreporting [C Chau, Health Protection Agency HIV&STI department, personal communication]. Based on these figures and our relatively high prevalence in a London cohort, it is difficult to extrapolate to recommendations for targeted screening in the UK.

At equal temperature, a reduction in CO2 partial pressure can lea

At equal temperature, a reduction in CO2 partial pressure can lead to precipitation of calcite. These effects are also observed during lab experiments with 14 Dutch groundwater samples (Willemsen and Appelo, 1985). Finally, the transport of contaminants to the deeper groundwater can be accelerated by mixing processes. For contaminants wherefore the

degradation depends on redox conditions, mixing can create either more or less favorable conditions for degradation (van Oostrom et al., 2010 and Zuurbier et al., 2013). The extent to which ATES BMS907351 systems mix different groundwater types depends on the screen length, sealing practice and water quality distribution in the aquifer surrounding the well screens. To achieve the desired flow rates, water is often extracted over a large portion of the aquifer. Where water quality

differences are present over the screen length, mixing may lead to changes in groundwater composition around the ATES wells. The effects of mixing in the extraction wells are comparable to the effects observed in drinking water wells, including clogging. However, the effects in the extraction wells of an ATES system are expected to be smaller since drinking water wells only produce groundwater check details and, therefore continously pull water quality transition zones toward the wells. ATES wells on the other hand usually switch pumping direction twice a year, so that the main share of the water that is pumped has already been pumped and mixed in the previous season. As a consequence drinking water wells have a much higher probability to mix different types of groundwater. In ATES systems on the other hand, the pumped, mixed groundwater is re-injected into the aquifer in a nearby well, which is (usually) not the case for drinking water wells. Geochemical changes related to the

injection of water are discussed in the context of Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) (Descourvières et al., 2010, Prommer and Stuyfzand, 2005 and Pyne, 2005). In ASR systems, often oxic (surface) water is injected into anoxic aquifers and the geochemical effects are therefore larger than for ATES systems in which (mixed) water from the same aquifer is re-injected. In the storage volume, the native water is replaced by the injected water, and a new hydrochemical en geochemical equilibrium will be installed over time. A field and modeling study in the Netherlands (Bonte et al., 2013c) showed that ATES operation results in homogenization of the natural redox zoning in the aquifer, which may trigger secondary reactions such as mobilization of trace elements and organic carbon. However, the results of the investigated site showed that the observed concentration changes are sufficiently small to keep groundwater suitable for drinking water production from a chemical point of view.

The maximal riverine input of lead, 210 t yr−1, was noted in 1994

The maximal riverine input of lead, 210 t yr−1, was noted in 1994 (HELCOM, 2011), although this had decreased to 180 t yr−1 already in 1995, and continued to reach ca. 40 t yr−1 in 2006. Unfortunately, an increase in riverine discharges of lead was observed in

2007, to 80 t yr−1, causing a reversal of the decreasing trend in the surface sediment layer. The absence of significant decrease in heavy metal concentrations in sediments from the Gdańsk Deep is probably related directly to the considerable amounts of heavy metals Gefitinib ic50 discharged to the sea by the Vistula river. Additionally, an adjournment of the response of heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments in relation to changes occurring in the discharge has to be considered,

especially if thin (2 cm) sediment layers are studied. Well marked changes in concentrations of heavy metals in surface find more sediment layer were found out in the SE Gtoland Basin, where Pb and Zn concentrations show a clear descent since 1980, and Hg since 1990. Heavy metal concentrations in the sediment from the SE Gotland Basin are decidedly lower than that in the Gdańsk Deep. Particularly large differences are found in the case of Cd, Hg and Zn. Cadmium concentrations vary from 0.17 mg kg−1 in the deepest sediment layer to 0.51 mg kg−1 in the surface layer, with a significant increase since 1980. A similar pattern, as evidenced by an increase since 1980, was noted in Hg concentrations. Mercury concentrations spanned the range from 0.04 to 0.12 mg kg−1, and visible decline is seen in the surface layer, since about 1990. In the case of zinc, its content increased significantly in the SE Gotland DOK2 Basin sediments after 1918, and later after 1980, reaching a maximum of 188 mg kg−1 at 4–6 cm depth. In this region, zinc – similar to lead concentrations, decreased after 1990 to the level of 168 mg kg−1. Lead content showed the lowest gradient between layers, attaining 43.2 mg kg−1 at 36–38 cm depth and maximal, 72 mg kg−1,

in 4–6 cm layer attributed to 1990. In the Bornholm Deep, cadmium and mercury concentrations remained practically unchangeable up to 1923, at 0.30 and 0.04 mg kg−1, respectively. Later, the sediment profiles show an unvarying increase of both metals up to their maximal levels, Cd – 1.21 mg kg−1 and Hg – 0.15 mg kg−1, in surface layers. Cadmium concentration obtained in this study in surface sediments of the Bornholm Deep is in very good agreement with the value of 1.20 mg kg−1 presented by other authors (Szefer et al., 2009). Zn and Pb show a different (to Cd) pattern of changes in the Bornholm Deep sediments. The Pb curve indicated a considerable shift around 1890, from 24.5 mg kg−1 in the two deepest layers to 34.9 mg kg−1, and the next steep increase was noted after 1950. About 1980, Pb concentration reached 56 mg kg−1 and stayed almost unchanged in the next layers up to the surface.

4) In addition, it is unclear how the temporal and spatial scale

4). In addition, it is unclear how the temporal and spatial scales of the time-varying wind field would affect the circulation in the limited model domain, possibly causing circulation artifacts due to interference at the periodic boundary. Another simplification that is required to ensure consistency at the periodic model boundaries is the omission of tidal forcing. Propagating tidal waves would interfere with their images at the cyclic model boundary. Also the successive superposition of tides in separate non-cyclic model runs was found to strongly alter the mean circulation, Etoposide leading to the development of

circulation artifacts (Abrahamsen, 2012). However, tidal currents in the Eastern Weddell Sea region are generally rather weak (Padman

et al., 2002). A discussion on how tides, sea ice and time-varying winds may alter our results will be given in Section 6.3. In addition to the semi-idealized ANN-100 experiment, we study the melting response to different climatic conditions by systematically varying the idealized model forcing. The role of easterly winds for the momentum balance of the ASF current is explored by varying the magnitude of the wind stress by a constant factor, here denoted by percentages with “100” indicating the RACMO2 average. A strong wind forcing (denoted “130”) MDV3100 nmr with 130% of the average surface stress, as well as four weak wind forcing forcings (30, 40, 60 and 70), are applied. This range was chosen to highlight the two possible states of melting that are revealed by our simulations. The effect of the ASW formation is investigated by using different hydrographic conditions for the water mass restoring at the surface and the lateral boundaries. In addition to the time-varying annual cycle scenario described above (denoted

ANN) a constant summer (SUM) and a constant winter (WIN) scenario are used for the hydrographic nudging. In the constant winter scenario, no ASW is present and a homogeneous layer of ESW with temperatures at the surface freezing point occupies the water column above the thermocline. The constant summer scenario is defined by the mid-April climatology indicated by the dashed line in Fig. 3(c), when the distribution of ASW extends deepest throughout the water column. Combining nearly the different wind and hydrographic forcings, 18 different experiments, as denoted in Table 1, were preformed. Each experiment starts from an initialization state at equilibrium, produced by a 10 year spin-up with the constant winter (WIN-100) forcing applied and the model being initialized with temperatures at the surface freezing point, a horizontally uniform salinity profile, and zero velocities. The initialization state reproduces a fully developed ASF mesoscale eddy field, as illustrated by the snapshot of relative vorticity in Fig. 2(b).

[17], not only PI but also the area under the TIC was shown to be

[17], not only PI but also the area under the TIC was shown to be significantly higher in the BG and white matter ROIs than in the Th ROI. Furthermore, SHI utilizing an alternative UCA (Optison) showed significantly higher Th ROI in the ipsilateral hemisphere than in the contralateral hemisphere [18]. More recent studies utilizing phase-inversion Veliparib harmonic imaging (PIHI) utilizing Optison and SonoVue [19] showed typical depth dependant PI attenuation in the contralateral hemisphere rather than the ipsilateral hemisphere in bilateral or unilateral (ipsilateral) approaches. A bilateral approach utilizing PIHI [19] and [20] has been suggested

for evaluating contralateral hemispheres. Our previous study of ultrasound perfusion imaging also showed that PMI utilizing transient response high power images is superior to conventional SHI in evaluation of the contra-lateral cerebral hemisphere [21]. This study

reconfirmed that result. However, limitations of the contralateral approach, e.g. shadowing [19], have been pointed out [5]. In order to overcome the problems in quantifying brain tissue perfusion, e.g. depth dependant ultrasound attenuation, we have applied transcranial ultrasound perfusion imaging to the ACZ vasoreactivity test [10] and [13]. In ACZ vasoreactivity tests, the same ROI placements before and after ACZ are very important for accurate quantification. From this point of view, the Sonopod is very useful for precise quantification of brain tissue perfusion. TCDS-Sonopod monitoring succeeds in continuously buy GSK2118436 and quantitatively evaluating precise and reproducible intracranial hemodynamics in the major

cerebral arteries and brain tissue. “
“Assessment of cerebral perfusion is highly relevant for the immediate Calpain diagnostic work-up of acute ischemic stroke. MRI and CT perfusion are routinely used to identify patients who may benefit from recanalizing therapy beyond the standard time window, identifying salvageable tissue at risk of infarction by the MR diffusion-perfusion-based mismatch concept [1]. Other perfusion imaging methods like PET-CT and SPECT are not feasible in acute stroke patients because of logistic limitations. Ultrasound perfusion imaging (UPI) has been shown to be able to likewise identify perfusion deficits of the brain parenchyma [2], [3] and [4]. The advantages of UPI are the possibility to perform and repeat the examination at patient’s bedside, allowing a non-invasive, cheap and quickly applicable assessment of cerebral perfusion on an intensive care unit or a stroke unit. The main limitations of this method are the attenuation of ultrasound by the human skull and the interindividual variance of skull thickness [5]. In order to guarantee a sufficient penetration of ultrasound, a high ultrasound energy (high mechanical index = MI) was necessary in earlier UPI protocols.

Western blots were quantified by NIH ImageJ software version 1 45

Western blots were quantified by NIH ImageJ software version 1.45. Human DKK1 levels in the conditioned medium from HPSE-low and HPSE-high CAG cells were measured using hDKK1 Quantikine ELISA kit (R&D Systems). Mouse DKK1 levels

in conditioned medium from primary murine osteoblastic progenitor cells, C3H10T1/2 pre-osteoblastic cells and ST2 stromal 3-MA cost cells cultured in the absence or presence of rHPSE were measured by mDKK1 Quantikine ELISA (R&D Systems). All assays were performed according to the protocols provided by the manufacturers. Statistical comparisons between two experimental groups were analyzed by Student’s t test. ANOVA was employed for statistical analyses among multiple groups, followed by a post-hoc Bonferroni test. The correlations between heparanase and osteocalcin expression in MM patients’ samples were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficient. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant and is reported as such. To determine the effects of heparanase expression by myeloma cells on mesenchymal lineage cells, we first

examined the effect of heparanase on osteoblastogenesis and parameters of bone formation by evaluating osteoblast parameters in SCID-hu mice [36]. We measured osteocalcin expression, a marker of mature osteoblast differentiation, in histologic sections of engrafted bone [23]. The analysis revealed that the number of osteocalcin-positive Angiogenesis inhibitor osteoblasts was significantly diminished in both primary (injected with tumor cells) and contralateral (not injected with tumor cells) engrafted bones of the mice bearing

HPSE-high tumor, compared to animals bearing tumors formed by HPSE-low cells (Figs. 1A–B). These data provided the first direct experimental evidence that osteoblastogenesis was inhibited by heparanase in vivo. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining for human kappa light chain, a specific marker of Liothyronine Sodium CAG myeloma cells, revealed no detectable tumor cells in uninjected contralateral grafts (data not shown), suggesting that the inhibition of osteoblastogenesis was humoral and not due to myeloma tumor metastasis to the contralateral graft. We next investigated the correlation between heparanase expression and osteocalcin expression in myeloma patients, using primary bone marrow core biopsy specimens obtained from myeloma patients. Specific immunohistochemical staining for heparanase and osteocalcin was performed on 28 myeloma patient bone marrow core biopsy specimens. We identified a significant negative correlation (r = − 0.62, P < 0.001) between heparanase expression by myeloma cells and osteocalcin expression by bone marrow cells (Fig. 2 and Supplementary Table 1).

, 2010 and Petrovic et al , 2008), and it is likely that increase

, 2010 and Petrovic et al., 2008), and it is likely that increased activity in this region might underpin the heightened recognition performance in the oxytocin condition reported here. In addition, several investigations have provided evidence that the amygdala might have a critical

role in the mediation of the socio-cognitive Selisistat nmr effects of oxytocin (Domes et al., 2007, Kirsch et al., 2005 and Petrovic et al., 2008), and it is of note that this neural structure is thought to be part of the extended face processing system that acts in concert with the core system (Haxby et al., 2000). A second novel finding reported here is that, in the DP participants, oxytocin improved the perception of facial identity in a face matching task. To our knowledge this is the first evidence that oxytocin can improve face perception in any participant group, providing further insight into the locus of the effects of the hormone.

However, neuroimaging work examining the influence of oxytocin on face perception is required. Indeed, while it is plausible that enhanced fusiform activity promotes performance on both face memory and face perception tasks, it is currently unknown whether oxytocin can also promote activity in neural structures implicated in earlier stages of the face processing network, such as the OFA (although modulation in occipital areas was noted by Domes et al., 2010). Nevertheless, we can speculate that our findings imply that oxytocin acts upon neural structures that are open to modulation even in DP, despite possible abnormalities in these areas (see Garrido et al., 2009, Hasson et al., 2003 and Thomas et al., 2009). When selleck chemicals considering the influence of oxytocin on facial perception, it is pertinent to examine each individual DP’s neuropsychological background

in relation to their improvement in the oxytocin condition. Indeed, while all DPs have a deficit in face recognition, an impairment in the perception of facial identity (i.e., when no demands are placed on memory) is not necessary for a diagnosis of the condition. This is one example of the heterogeneity of DP, and either it is of note that only two participants (DP1 and DP8) in our sample were impaired on the CFPT in the initial diagnostic session. Although no overall correlation was noted between initial CFPT performance and level of improvement on the face matching test, it is relevant that oxytocin brought about one of the largest improvements on this test in DP1, although DP8 did not show any improvement. In addition, DP7 and DP10 presented with some difficulties in lower-level vision on tests of the BORB in the diagnostic session, although their CFPT scores were in the normal range. Unfortunately DP7′s data were lost for the CFMT in the placebo condition, but he displayed a small improvment in the matching test in the oxytocin condition. DP10 displayed very little improvement on both tests in the oxytocin condition.

Our experimental methodology including antigen retrieval, choice

Our experimental methodology including antigen retrieval, choice of the antibody, and detection system was in concordance with previously LDK378 reported studies. Stained sections were scored by a pathologist who was masked for patient’s clinicopathologic parameters and outcomes. Slides were scored using Allred guidelines [35]. In brief, entire slide of each sample was evaluated using Olympus BX41 microscope at × 100 and × 200 magnifications. First, proportion of positively stained

tumor cells (0, none; 1, < 1/100; 2, 1/100 to 1/10; 3, 1/10 to 1/3; 4, 1/3 to 2/3; and 5, > 2/3) was estimated. Next, an intensity score that represented the average intensity of positive tumor cells (1, weak; 2, intermediate; and 3, strong) was estimated. The proportion and intensity scores were then added to obtain a total score, which ranged from 0 to 8. Nuclear staining for AR and cytoplasmic staining for pAkt and pPTEN with a total score of ≥ 3 were considered positive. Frequencies of different markers including AR, pAkt, and pPTEN with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were generated for the expression of these markers. Descriptive statistics was determined

for continuous (mean ± SE) and categorical (percentages) variables. The associations of AR, pAkt, and pPTEN expression with demographical data, details of treatment regimen, and clinicopathologic parameters like tumor type, grade, size, status of lymph node, ER, PR, and HER2 were assessed by χ2 test if appropriate; otherwise, Fisher exact test was applied. OS were computed using Kaplan-Meier method. Means and SE of OS time were reported for clinicopathologic ZVADFMK parameters. The association of different survival times by these markers was obtained using log-rank test. A P value < .05 (two sided) was considered statistically significant. SPSS (version 18.0, IBM Company, Chicago, IL) Rho was used for all statistical analysis. Mean

(± SE) age of patients at diagnosis was 54.8 (± 10.5) years, of which 39% were younger than 50 years. Most of the tumors (95.5%) were ductal, followed by lobular (3%) and mucinous carcinomas (1.5%). More than half of the tumors (56.5%) were of grade II, 54.5% of tumors were 2 to 5 cm in size, and 53.0% of the primary tumors had no lymph node involvement at diagnosis. Among 121 cases of ER-positive tumor, 115 (95%) patients received endocrine therapy. Majority of them (89.5%) received tamoxifen as first option, whereas the remainder (10.5%) received either Femara (Novartis, Basel, Switzerland) or Arimidex (ICI Pakistan Ltd., Karachi, Pakistan). Expression of AR, pAkt, and pPTEN was observed in 47.5% (95% CI = 40.6%-54.4%), 81.3% (95% CI = 75.4%-87.2%), and 50.6% (95% CI = 42.9%-58.3%) of patients, respectively. The percentage of tumors that expressed AR, pAkt, pPTEN, ER, PR, and HER2 are shown in Table 1. AR expression was predominantly found to be localized in the nuclei, whereas pAkt and pPTEN were predominantly found to be localized in the cytoplasm.

g Griffies et al , 2009 and Downes et al , 2011), even in terms

g. Griffies et al., 2009 and Downes et al., 2011), even in terms of mean state. Such deviations have, as a matter of fact, important implications for understanding the present climate and its response to anthropogenic forcing. When an OGCM is coupled to other climatic components, in particular an atmospheric model, tuning is an additional issue. Climate

modelling activity at Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) has been in constant evolution since the seminal version of the climate model, developed by Braconnot et al. (1997). Recently, IPSL contributed to the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) by providing data from its latest version of its coupled model, namely the IPSL-CM5A model. Ganetespib purchase As described by Dufresne et al. (2013), this model, more than a single entity, is a platform that combines a consistent suite of models with various degrees of complexity, diverse components and processes, and

different atmospheric resolutions. The aim of the present paper is to detail the formulation of the oceanic component of the climate model developed at IPSL, and to give insights on its evolution from the IPSL-CM4 version (Marti et al., 2010), used for the 3rd Coupled selleckchem Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3), to IPSL-CM5A (Dufresne et al., 2013), used for the 5th (CMIP5). Both the oceanic and atmospheric components have significantly evolved from IPSL-CM4 to IPSL-CM5A. Amino acid The atmospheric component is the LMDZ model (Hourdin et al., 2006 and Hourdin et al., 2012). The oceanic component of both versions of the coupled model (IPSL-CM4 and IPSL-CM5A) is the global Océan Parallèlisé (OPA) ocean general circulation model (OGCM), which evolved from OPA8 (Madec et al., 1999) to NEMOv3.2 (Madec, 2008). This change of versions has been accompanied by several modifications and physical parameterizations, in particular the inclusion of a partial step formulation of bottom topography and changes in the

vertical mixing scheme. Furthermore, the latest version of the model includes a state-of-the-art biogeochemical component, simulating space and time varying chlorophyll concentrations, namely the Pelagic Interaction Scheme for Carbon and Ecosystem Studies model, hereafter referred as PISCES model (Aumont and Bopp, 2006). Two-way coupling between the physical and biogeochemical components allows the simulated chlorophyll concentrations to interact with optical properties of the ocean modifying in turn the vertical distribution of radiant heating. Several coupled studies (e.g. Lengaigne et al., 2006, Wetzel et al., 2006 and Patara et al., 2012) showed for example that introducing interactive biology acts to warm the surface eastern equatorial Pacific by about 0.5 °C. Slight increase of El Niño Southern Oscillation amplitudes is also suggested (e.g. Lengaigne et al., 2006 and Marzeion et al., 2005).

17 and 50 In this study, it was found that the lowest values in C

17 and 50 In this study, it was found that the lowest values in Ca/P ratios were obtained in groups with dietary control (Ovx/alc, Ovx/iso, Sham/alc and Sham/iso), and were higher in groups with the ad libitum diet (Ovx/ad libitum/Sham/ad libitum). These findings suggest that diet may play an important role in the variations of the stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. However, further studies are necessary to validate this statement with greater statistical

reliability. Within the alcohol groups of the present study, an average of 37.83% of total calories came from alcohol, similar to previous studies, in which alcohol was responsible for 35–40% of calories in the rats’ diet.28, 52 and 53 This is considered a high dosage of alcohol consumption,28, 52 and 53 resulting in elevated blood ethanol concetrations.52 Selleckchem Ivacaftor In another study35 with rats treated with 20% ethanol (in drinking water), similarly to that undertaken in our study, blood PARP inhibitor trial alcohol levels were eight times higher in the treated rats (0.869 g l−1) than those in the control group (0.11 g l−1). The 20% concentration was administered for 15 days which was considered a chronic intake.35 In our study the rats received alcohol for eight weeks. A comparison of results suggests that our rats were subjected

to an excessive and chronic consumption of alcohol. This is an important factor, as most researchers seem to believe that the harmful effects of alcohol on bone is observed with abusive alcohol consumption and not with moderate consumption.54 and 55 The methodology for the treatment of the animals

is based on previous studies21, 22 and 23 that have used similar experimental groups, concentration of alcohol (20% in drinking water) and time of ovariectomy. The standardization of the treatment facilitated the comparison of our results with other studies.21, 22 and 23 However, potential confounding effects pertaining to the type of diet used in our experiment should be considered when interpreting the results. Lieber et al.56 criticized the delivery of alcohol in drinking water, as it reduces water intake and makes it difficult to control nutrients. Since nutritional changes could interfere with the host’s response to the progression of periodontal disease,17 and 50 other studies could verify if the results of this experiment would be similar if other forms of Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) administration of alcohol could be considered, for example, using a nutritionally adequate liquid diet containing alcohol (Lieber–DeCarli liquid diet),28, 37, 53 and 56 the administration of alcohol by intraperitonial injections27 and 32 or by intubation.57 The present study has some limitations. One of the limitations was that of not being able to control the isocaloric group ingesting exactly the same amount of calories as those of the alcohol group (when considering the liquid diet). To minimize this problem, other ways of administrating the liquid diet could be considered.