elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Author, Dr Rao M. Adibhatla, and the Editor-in-Chief following finding of research misconduct [data falsification] against the Author by the US Office of Research Integrity. See Fed. Regist., 78 (17) (January 25th 2013). “
“This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy).
This article has been retracted at the request of the corresponding Author owing to the inadvertent duplication GSK1120212 mw of some data [p-Drp-1 blots presented in fig. 2] between this article and “Dynamic changes of mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins after transient cerebral ischemia in mice”, Liu, W, Tian, F, Kurata, T, Morimoto, N, Abe, K. J. Neurosci. Res., 90 (6) (2012) 1183–1189, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.23016. “
“Stroke is currently a critical public health problem and a major cause of death and disability in adults worldwide (Lloyd-Jones et al., 2009 and Lotufo, 2005). Several pathophysiological events are triggered in brain tissue after an ischemic injury, including the inflammatory response and oxidative stress damage (Brouns and De Deyn, 2009 and Deb et al., 2010). Thus, drugs with anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions have been expected to have PARP inhibitor a protective effect in brain ischemia. Polyphenols are natural substances found in plant products, as leaves and
fruits, oils, wine and tea. They are divided into phenolic acids, flavonoids and non-flavonoid polyphenols (Ramassamy, 2006). Like beta-carotene and ascorbic acid, polyphenolic compounds are related to protective effects against cancer and cardiovascular disease (Heim et al., 2002). Flavonoids are part of this large group of polyphenolic compounds, and more before than 2000 flavonoids have been identified (Ramassamy, 2006). The most important pharmacological properties of flavonoids are its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions (Benavente-García and Castillo, 2008, Formica and Regelson, 1995, Juurlink and Paterson, 1998 and Procházková et al., 2011). The use of flavonoids has been proposed for pathologies of central nervous system, such
as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and stroke, due to such properties and to data from epidemiological studies (Ramassamy, 2006 and Sun et al., 2008). Rutin, also called as quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, is a flavonoid glycoside composed of the flavonoid quercetin and the disaccharide rutinose that have antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anti-viral and anti-carcinogenic actions (Araújo et al., 2011). Few studies have evaluated the treatment with rutin in models of global and focal brain ischemia, showing positive effects (Gupta et al., 2003 and Khan et al., 2009). Rutin administration has been evaluated in a model of focal brain ischemia, revealing protective action (Khan et al., 2009). However, only pre-ischemic administration was assessed (Khan et al., 2009).