elsevier com/locate/withdrawalpolicy) This article has been retr

elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Author, Dr Rao M. Adibhatla, and the Editor-in-Chief following finding of research misconduct [data falsification] against the Author by the US Office of Research Integrity. See Fed. Regist., 78 (17) (January 25th 2013). “
“This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy).

This article has been retracted at the request of the corresponding Author owing to the inadvertent duplication GSK1120212 mw of some data [p-Drp-1 blots presented in fig. 2] between this article and “Dynamic changes of mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins after transient cerebral ischemia in mice”, Liu, W, Tian, F, Kurata, T, Morimoto, N, Abe, K. J. Neurosci. Res., 90 (6) (2012) 1183–1189, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.23016. “
“Stroke is currently a critical public health problem and a major cause of death and disability in adults worldwide (Lloyd-Jones et al., 2009 and Lotufo, 2005). Several pathophysiological events are triggered in brain tissue after an ischemic injury, including the inflammatory response and oxidative stress damage (Brouns and De Deyn, 2009 and Deb et al., 2010). Thus, drugs with anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions have been expected to have PARP inhibitor a protective effect in brain ischemia. Polyphenols are natural substances found in plant products, as leaves and

fruits, oils, wine and tea. They are divided into phenolic acids, flavonoids and non-flavonoid polyphenols (Ramassamy, 2006). Like beta-carotene and ascorbic acid, polyphenolic compounds are related to protective effects against cancer and cardiovascular disease (Heim et al., 2002). Flavonoids are part of this large group of polyphenolic compounds, and more before than 2000 flavonoids have been identified (Ramassamy, 2006). The most important pharmacological properties of flavonoids are its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions (Benavente-García and Castillo, 2008, Formica and Regelson, 1995, Juurlink and Paterson, 1998 and Procházková et al., 2011). The use of flavonoids has been proposed for pathologies of central nervous system, such

as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and stroke, due to such properties and to data from epidemiological studies (Ramassamy, 2006 and Sun et al., 2008). Rutin, also called as quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, is a flavonoid glycoside composed of the flavonoid quercetin and the disaccharide rutinose that have antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anti-viral and anti-carcinogenic actions (Araújo et al., 2011). Few studies have evaluated the treatment with rutin in models of global and focal brain ischemia, showing positive effects (Gupta et al., 2003 and Khan et al., 2009). Rutin administration has been evaluated in a model of focal brain ischemia, revealing protective action (Khan et al., 2009). However, only pre-ischemic administration was assessed (Khan et al., 2009).

0% among the subgroups of the EZ (groups ‘EZ1’, ‘EZ2 Emerg’ and ‘

0% among the subgroups of the EZ (groups ‘EZ1’, ‘EZ2 Emerg’ and ‘EZ2 Evac’), but was lower in the residents living outside the EZ who had visited the emergency services (38.8% in the ‘Controls’).

Of the 242 participants, 41.3% were men, and the median age was 45.0 years. The median age was almost identical among the three subgroups of the EZ (respectively 48.5, 47.0 and 48.0 years in groups ‘EZ1’, ‘EZ2 Emerg’ and ‘EZ2 Evac’), but was lower in the residents living outside the EZ who had visited the emergency services (34.0 years in the ‘Controls’). Blood, urine and questionnaires http://www.selleckchem.com/products/bay80-6946.html were collected from May 18–25, i.e. days 14 till 21 after the train accident with the assistance of the local general practitioners and the physicians of

the Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment. The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Committee of Ghent University Hospital and an informed consent was signed by all participants prior to their participation in the study. Venous blood was sampled from each participant in 10 mL BD Vacutainer tubes containing EDTA (BD Vacutainer, ref. 367,525). Participants also provided a urine sample for the measurement of cotinine as biomarker for tobacco smoke exposure (Benowitz et al., 2009). It was measured to account for a person’s smoking status because ACN is also present in tobacco smoke and smoking may thus interfere with the interpretation of the CEV measurements. Finally, each participant also filled in a short questionnaire. The questionnaire included (i) demographic variables, i.e. name, address, gender, day,

Tolmetin month and year of birth; (ii) Epigenetics inhibitor lifestyle variables, i.e. smoking status (non-smoker, ex-smoker, occasional smoker or daily smoker); and (iii) some specific variables related to the sampling, i.e. the day and the hour at which blood and urine sampling took place. After the results were available, an additional interview was taken from the group of the ‘Controls’ who showed CEV values above the reference values (see below). This interview allowed assessing (i) whether the study participants had been in the specific streets of the EZ at the time of and/or in the days following the train accident, and (ii) whether they were occupationally exposed to ACN in daily life. Blood samples were pre-treated within 24 h to obtain a lysate of erythrocytes. The pretreated samples were stored at −20° C. Because of the need for substantial analysing capacity, blood samples were sent on dry ice to three different laboratories specialized in CEV analyses where a modified Edman degradation was used for adduct dosimetry (Van Sittert et al., 1997 and Tornqvist et al., 1986). Blood samples taken between May 18 and 19 were sent to Lab I, between May 20 and 22 to Lab II, and between May 23 and 25 to Lab III. All three laboratories applied N-2-cyanoethyl-valine-leucine-anilide (Bachem, Bubendorf, Switzerland) for the calibration of the quantitative Edman procedure.

7) but not in the distal femur (Fig  6) The trabecular BMD of th

7) but not in the distal femur (Fig. 6). The trabecular BMD of the distal Dapagliflozin femur (Fig. 6C) as well as the L3 vertebrae (Fig. 7C) was significantly improved

upon diet correction in both age groups, after adjusting to lean controls. The mean trabecular BVF in the distal femur of mature HFD:LFD mice was equivalent to the age-matched LFD:LFD controls; however, a relative deficit with no improvement persisted in the normalized BVF of immature mice (Fig. 6D). A trend towards improved cortical thickness (Fig. 6F) and significant relative improvements in SMI (Fig. 6E) as well as Tb.Th (Fig. 6H) was observed in the femurs of both age groups after diet correction (HFD:LFD). However,

all other trabecular structure metrics remained inferior to age-matched lean controls in the distal femur (Table S2). In the L3 vertebrae, relative improvements were observed with diet correction in the trabecular BVF, total cross-sectional bone area, and Tb.Th in both age groups (Figs. 7D,E,H). Interestingly, the vertebral Tb.Th of HFD-fed mice significantly exceeds that of age-matched LFD:LFD controls in both age groups after diet correction (Table S3). Further, the cortical shell thickness of the vertebral bodies is significantly improved after diet correction in the mature, but not immature, mice (Fig. 7F). In accordance with the recovered BVF and cortical thickness, as well as the increasing Tb.Th, Ribociclib in vivo the total cross-sectional bone area was significantly improved with diet correction in both age groups (Fig. 7E). The vertebral bone area was equivalent to age-matched LFD:LFD controls in the immature group and tended to exceed those of LFD:LFD controls in the mature group

(Table S3). The compressive strength of the L3 vertebral bodies followed the relative improvements Idoxuridine of bone structure after transitioning the HFD-fed mice to a lean diet. The maximum force, yield force and stiffness were significantly increased with the diet correction (HFD:LFD), after normalizing to age-matched LFD controls, in both age groups (Figs. 8C–E). Interestingly, while the strength of immature HFD:LFD mouse vertebrae was equivalent to that of lean controls, the strength of mature HFD:LFD mouse vertebrae tended to exceed that of their respective lean controls (Table S4). The effect of diet correction and trends in improvement remain significant after normalizing the compressive loads by the total cross-sectional bone areas (Figs. 8G–I). This result suggests that apparent bone tissue quality may be improved with diet correction, in relation to that of lean controls, particularly in mature mice.

Nutrition Evidence Library Staff Director: Joanne M Spahn, MS, R

Nutrition Evidence Library Staff Director: Joanne M. Spahn, MS, RD, FADA Joan M. G. Lyon, MS, RD Jean M. Altman, MS Donna Blum-Kemelor, MS, RD, LD Eve V. Essery, PhD Thomas V. Fungwe, PhD Patricia Carrera MacNeil, MS, LN, CNS Mary M. McGrane, PhD Julie Obbagy, PhD, RD “
“The task of setting up a complicated spin system for a solid state NMR or EPR simulation is a noted test of perseverance: an aspiring theorist

would find himself juggling nested time-dependent tensor rotations in half a dozen ad hoc conventions [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6] and [7], struggling with Euler angle singularities [8], [9] and [10] and trying to visualize interactions that occur in direct products Androgen Receptor Antagonist selleck inhibitor of Lie algebras [11] and [12]. Function libraries [13], [14], [15], [16] and [17], command-line [14], [15], [16] and [17] and interactive [18]simulation tools for spin systems are available, but convenient point-and-click visualization and editing tools for setting up complex calculations are in their infancy. More importantly, no standards exist (whether by ISO, IUPAC or even a consensus) on a universal spin system

description format that would be applicable across all types of Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy – every major simulation package has its own spin system specification requirements. Of the existing formats, the Pople convention [19] only deals with NMR and the latest IUPAC recommendations only go as far as listing reasonable chemical shift and shielding tensor reporting styles [4] and [7]. At the time of writing, the task of setting up a complicated spin system for simulation

still amounts to manual parsing of unintuitive conventions and hand-coding of the associated tensor transformations. In this communication, we suggest a simple and general XML [20] and [21] format for spin system description that is the result of broad consultations within NMR and EPR communities. Methocarbamol The format does not attempt to introduce or change any of the current interaction specification conventions [1], [2], [3], [4], [6], [7], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25] and [26], but instead incorporates them as special cases and options into a common framework. SpinXML format is human-readable, extensible and easy to edit, both manually and automatically. We also describe a graphical user interface that was designed to facilitate the setting up of complicated spin systems and is capable of importing interaction data from electronic structure theory programs as well as producing input files for spin dynamics simulation packages. This section describes elements, types and attributes specified by the SpinXML schema file that is included into the Supplementary Information and available for download from the Spinach library website (http://spindynamics.org).

Such processes are typically attributed to physicochemical mechan

Such processes are typically attributed to physicochemical mechanisms [38] and [39], but microorganisms and their products could have significant but as yet overlooked roles in ice rheology. Microbial products are increasingly of interest in applications where manipulation of ice crystals is desired, due to their potential for scalability to industrial production [4]. The range of methods, applicable to investigation of ice, make NMR a valuable tool for understanding how ice-interacting proteins impact the three dimensional vein network and recrystallization processes, critical for exploiting

the full potential of these proteins Natural Product Library in biotechnology applications. JRB and TIB acknowledge the Montana Space Grant Consortium for funding. SLC acknowledges Navitoclax supplier a NSF CAREER award for support. JDS and SLC acknowledge the M.J Murdock Charitable Trust and NSF MRI for instrument funding. BCC was partially supported by grants from NASA (NNX10AN07A and NNX10AR92G) and the NSF (0636828, 0838941, and 1023233). MLS was partially supported by NSF0636770 and NASANNX10AT31G. “
“Molecular imprinting is the technology of creating artificial recognition sites complimentary in both

form and function to the “template” molecule [1], [2], [3] and [4]. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are formed by the polymerization of a functional monomer around the molecular template in the presence of cross-linker. MIPs have been used in solid-phase extractions, analytical separations, catalysis, drug delivery systems and as a biorecognition element in biosensors [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10] and [11]. MIP technology is successfully used for the recognition of low molecular weight templates, but there are still some difficulties in the design of MIPs for macromolecular templates like proteins [12] and [13]. Due to this, many researchers have

focused on imprinting the template protein directly onto a substrate, thus creating a substrate surface, which will be recognized by the target protein [14], [15] and [16]. Microcontact imprinting is the surface coating technique used for employing recognition cavities for large molecules and assemblies [17], Meloxicam [18], [19] and [20]. The general procedure of the method depends on the polymerization between two surfaces – a protein stamp and a polymer support. In the first step, the protein stamp is formed by adsorption of the template protein onto the pre-cleaned glass surface. Then, the protein stamp is brought into contact with the second surface, monomer-coated substrate. By this way, thin polymer film is formed on the support via UV polymerization. As the last step, template protein is removed from the surface and specific protein recognition sites are formed only at the surface of the imprinted support [14], [15], [16], [17], [18] and [19].

The anchor provided secure tissue grasping and did not pull out d

The anchor provided secure tissue grasping and did not pull out during retraction.

However, we were unable to deploy the Roscovitine concentration anchor with the endoscope in retroflexion in 4 patients with tumors in the fundus and along the lesser curvature. For these patients, we used the loop-over-loop technique, which was successful in 3 of the 4 patients. Overall, the RLUB technique was successful in 13 of 16 patients. A drawback of treatment by ligation rather than resection is the lack of a specimen for surgical pathology. EUS-guided tissue sampling by FNA or trucut is limited by small sample size that may be insufficient for immunohistochemistry and calculation of the mitotic index.3, 4 and 18 Our previous experience with EUS-guided FNA of GISTs19 agrees with that of Hoda et al3 who found that FNA may be nondiagnostic in nearly 40% of patients. We performed endoscopic “unroofing” by needle-knife incision to expose the underlying tumor for direct endoscopic forceps biopsy. Lee et al15 reported a 94% yield AG-014699 price for diagnosis and assessment of risk for malignancy by using the unroofing technique in subepithelial tumors originating in the muscularis propria on EUS. Our technique differs from that of Lee et al15 in that we performed loop ligation before unroofing, which

we hypothesized should reduce the risk of procedural bleeding and perforation.20 The RLUB approach allowed a definitive diagnosis by immunohistochemistry and categorized all patients with GISTs as low risk based on a mitotic number less than 5 per 50 high-power field.13 and 14 Unroofing after ligation may promote spontaneous enucleation of the stromal tumor. We made 2 incisions in a “cross” formation to maximize unroofing. We then placed an additional loop

by using the loop-over-loop technique to reinforce both tumor ischemia and enucleation. A mean of 1.3 sessions were required to achieve complete Sulfite dehydrogenase GIST ablation. This contrasted with our previous experience of a mean of 1.8 sessions by using the loop-and-let-go technique without unroofing for large GISTs.12 The RLUB technique failed in 3 patients with tumors that could not be fully captured in the loop. Various factors may contribute to failure including tumor size, morphology, and location, as well as device limitations. All failures were in tumors larger than 3.5 cm. Tangential access at locations such as the lesser curvature compromised our ability to evert the tumor-containing wall into an en face position for loop capture. Use of a side-viewing endoscope may address this difficulty. We found loop “floppiness” with a tendency to fold over during closure to be a device limitation. Delayed bleeding occurred in 2 patients. Endoscopy showed the loops had loosened and bleeding to be from the surface of the partially ligated tumor. Hemostasis was achieved with repeat looping.

, Scottsdale, AZ, USA) and a 25-hydroxyvitamin D RIA kit (Diasori

, Scottsdale, AZ, USA) and a 25-hydroxyvitamin D RIA kit (Diasorin S.p.A., Saluggia [Vercelli], Italy). Areal BMD (aBMD) of the lumbar spine (L1–L4) and right proximal femur (total hip)

were measured by DXA (QDR 2000 plus; Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) at baseline and at month 6 (experiment 1) or this website at months 3 and 6 (experiment 2). The coefficient of variation of DXA scanning with repositioning ranged from 0.8% for lumbar spine aBMD to 4.5% for femoral neck aBMD. pQCT (XCT Research SA +; Stratec Medizintechnik GmbH, Germany) was used to measure volumetric bone mineral content (vBMC) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the right tibia at baseline and at month 6 (experiment 1) or at months 3 and 6 (experiment 2). Metaphyseal data were generated as an average from 3 scans separated by 0.5 mm at the tibia/fibula junction (contour mode 2: threshold 0.446 cm− 1; peelmode 2: threshold 0.550 cm− 1). A diaphyseal scan was taken at approximately 12% of the bone length (peelmode 2, cortmode 2: threshold 0.930 cm− 1) toward the center of the tibia from the metaphyseal scans. SB431542 in vitro Nominal voxel size was 0.35 mm. The coefficient of variation of pQCT

scanning with repositioning was 0.2% to 1.1% at the proximal tibia across all variables obtained at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites. L2 vertebrae and right proximal femurs were collected for bone histomorphometric analysis. Each animal was injected with 8 mg/kg of calcein subcutaneously, 15 days and 5 days prior to termination. All bone samples were fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin for 3 days and transferred to 70% ethanol. Bones were then trimmed, Thiamet G dehydrated, and embedded in methyl methacrylate. Trabecular bone sections were prepared in the frontal plane for the femur neck, and in the sagittal plane for the L2 vertebral body. Dynamic histomorphometry was performed on 7 μm-thick unstained sections, while 5 μm-thick sections were stained with Goldner’s trichrome for static parameters and with toluidine blue for wall thickness (W.Th).

Cortical bone histomorphometry was performed on 2 unstained transverse sections at the femur diaphysis, ground to 20–40 μm in thickness. Measurements were collected with a Bioquant image analyzer (Bioquant Image Analysis Corporation, Nashville, TN, USA) linked with an Olympus BX-60 microscope (Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) equipped with bright and epifluorescence illumination Static and dynamic parameters were measured and reported as outlined by the ASBMR histomorphometry nomenclature committee [18]. Bone biomechanical testing was performed with an MTS 858 Mini Bionix servohydraulic test system (TestResources Inc., Shakopee, MN, USA), and data was collected using Testworks (v3.8A) for Teststar II (v.4.0c) software.

The authors acknowledge The Electron Microscopy Center of Federal

The authors acknowledge The Electron Microscopy Center of Federal University of Paraná for the technical support. “
“The authors would like to draw your attention to the fact that reference to one of the grants supporting

the work in this article was omitted in error from the acknowledgement in the original publication. The corrected acknowledgement is published below: The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. This work was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health (1P20-RR17661, 1K01ES019182, and 1R15ES019742), by the Center for Environmental Health Sciences at Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine (MSU-CVM), and by a Department of Basic Sciences (MSU-CVM) Preliminary Data Grant. “
“Figure options Download full-size image Download as PowerPoint slide Dr. Gregor Yeates, a CYC202 solubility dmso distinguished soil biologist, ecologist and systematist, and member Selleck Ganetespib of the Editorial Board of Pedobiologia for 29 years, died in his home town of Palmerston North on 6 August 2012 after a brief illness. Throughout his career he dedicated himself to understanding the ecology and systematics of soil organisms, and at the time of his death was an author of approximately 300 journal publications

spanning 45 years. Gregor commenced his career with a BSc (with first class honours) in 1966 followed by a PhD in 1968, both completed through the then Department of Zoology at the University of Canterbury. His focus at that time was on characterising and understanding

the communities of nematodes in New Zealand dune sands; prior to that the ecology of nematodes had seldom been studied in non-agricultural settings either in New Zealand or elsewhere. This work resulted in a series of nine papers produced in 1967 (e.g., Yeates, 1967), while Gregor was still in his early twenties, representing some of the most detailed assessments of nematode communities ever conducted in natural environments. After his (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate PhD he carried out postdoctoral research at the Rothamsted Experimental Station in England in 1968–1969, and at the Aarhus Museum of Natural History in Denmark in 1969–1970, focusing on nematode community ecology, energetics and production in a Danish beech forest (e.g., Yeates, 1972). On returning to New Zealand in 1970 he worked for the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR), first with Soil Bureau in Lower Hutt, then (following restructuring) from 1988 with the Division of Land Resources and from 1990 with DSIR Land Resources. During his time at the DSIR he was also awarded a DSc from the University of Canterbury in 1985 for his work on soil nematode populations. Following replacement of the DSIR by Crown Research Institutes in 1992, he worked with Landcare Research first in Lower Hutt, and from 1994 until his retirement in 2009 in Palmerston North, the city of his childhood.

, 2012) One example of an incentive program for proper trap disp

, 2012). One example of an incentive program for proper trap disposal is the Fishing for Energy Partnership between the NOAA Marine Debris Program, Covanta Energy

Corporation, the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, and Schnitzer Steel. This partnership, launched in 2008, provides commercial fishermen with a place to dispose of gear at no cost. Fishing nets, line, and traps are collected and trap parts are either recycled or converted into energy. By the end of December 2013, the partnership had collected over 2.2 million pounds of fishing gear at 41 ports in 9 states (National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, 2013). Additionally, it is not uncommon for traps to be lost by vandalism when a competitor intentionally cuts the lines of another’s traps to prevent fishing, or by trap theft (Clark et al., 2012). One way to combat theft is by educating Cyclopamine molecular weight fishing communities. If fishermen understand how Panobinostat research buy ghost fishing adversely affects a fishery and local habitats, they might be less likely to discard traps or engage in theft. Additional research is needed to understand fishermen’s motivations for intentional trap loss and to determine how educational efforts can help to mitigate the problem. Methods exist to minimize the potential impact of

DFTs. Removal efforts can reduce the number of DFTs and should target high-loss areas often associated with high fishing efforts (Giordano et al., 2010) and areas with known accumulations of DFTs (Uhrin et al., 2014). Removal is not always feasible, though, because it can be cost prohibitive to retrieve and dispose of DFTs. Several

states, including Mississippi, North Y-27632 2HCl Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, developed DFT removal programs in the 1990s (Guillory et al., 2001), but funding for programs has not been continuous. In Puget Sound, derelict trap recovery has been part of the Northwest Straits Initiative’s derelict fishing gear program since 2002; currently, recovery of DFTs occurs in known areas of heavy fishing effort on a semi-regular basis (Northwest Straits Initiative, 2014). From 2008 to 2012, Virginia resource managers implemented a conservation measure to fund fishermen to retrieve over 32,000 items of derelict fishing gear from the lower Chesapeake Bay (Bilkovic et al., 2014). As annual loss rates continue to be fairly high, short-term or one-time efforts are not likely to keep up with the loss rates of trap fishing. Based on the success of Virginia’s efforts, which were funded by Federal emergency supplemental funding following the closure of the winter blue crab dredge fishery, we suggest that if the opportunity arises other emergency supplemental funds be considered for DFT removal efforts by fishermen in order to reduce the environmental impacts of DFTs (Havens et al., 2011).

40 The serial interval was slightly shorter than in other studies

40 The serial interval was slightly shorter than in other studies but was based on a small number Proteasome inhibitor of secondary cases while tertiary cases were excluded. As noted by Lau et al., serial interval estimates could be shortened by correction for multiple chains of transmission (e.g., tertiary cases), and serial interval estimates are not constant because they reflect a combination of the profile of index cases, contact patterns within households, and incubation period.21 Timely oseltamivir treatment of index cases was

not significantly associated with infection of contacts, as reported elsewhere.13 However, cases that took oseltamivir early tended to have higher viral RNA shedding and symptom scores at onset compared to untreated or late-treated cases, whereas levels were similar or lower by day 2. Therefore, timely treatment may have helped to resolve shedding and symptoms. Forty five percent of virologically confirmed household secondary cases did not develop symptoms, higher than reported by others.6, 14, 18, 20 and 39 One asymptomatic case did not seroconvert, LGK974 which may indicate that viral RNA remained in the respiratory tract without being internalized and eliciting

an immune response. Contrary to expectations, the duration of viral RNA shedding was similar for symptomatic cases and asymptomatic cases, perhaps because asymptomatic cases did not take oseltamivir. In contrast Loeb et al. reported a shorter duration of shedding in asymptomatic cases.39 The extent to which shedding without symptoms contributes to influenza transmission is unclear.41 A few studies have investigated transmission during

pre-symptomatic shedding in humans, but involve only a few index cases, learn more rely on recall, and can’t control for exposure.42 and 43 One study has demonstrated transmission before symptoms in ferrets.44 Virus emission is an important component of transmission and is related to both nasopharangeal viral load and the mechanical processes of coughing and sneezing.45 In the current study viral RNA shedding was lower in asymptomatic compared tosymptomatic cases, consistent with Loeb et al.,39 but in contrast to Suess et al.20 Household transmission was also associated with the amount of wet cough in the index case, consistent with several other studies,11, 13 and 17 and suggesting that transmission from symptomatic cases is more efficient. However, virus emission has been reported to vary substantially between individuals,45 and this could confound our interpretation of risk factors. Further definition of the contribution of shedding without or before symptoms to transmission is required to estimate the effectiveness of control measures such as case quarantine and timely treatment. The major limitations of the current study were the small number of index cases, and the selection of households from just one commune.