The use of KU-57788 clinical trial statins in treating KD may be beneficial due to its observed immunomodulatory properties, including the inhibition of T cell proliferation and cytokine production as well as inhibiting MMP-9 production, suggesting that statins may have benefit beyond that of cholesterol-lowering in Kawasaki disease. More study is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of this class of therapeutic agents in young children. This study was funded by operating grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (MOP-81378)
and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada (T6365). R.S.M.Y. is a recipient of an Investigator Award from the Arthritis Society of Canada and BWM is the holder of the CIBC World Markets Children’s Miracle research chair. All authors have no conflicts of interest. Fig. S1. Cytotoxicity assay. Mouse vascular smooth muscle cells (MOVAS) cells were cultured [Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS), sodium pyruvate, non-essential amino acid, R428 cell line 2 mM L-glutamine
and 10 mM HEPES] for 6 h in a 96-well culture plate with 25 ng/ml recombinant mouse tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α (eBioscience, San Diego, CA, USA), and with either various atorvastatin concentrations or of the drug vehicle, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). After the incubation period, cytotoxicity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) using a commercial kit, following the manufacturer’s protocol (Roche Applied Science, Mannheim, Germany). Open and solids bars represent cultures in the presence of atorvastatin and corresponding concentrations of DMSO, respectively. “
“Peripheral blood monocyte (PBM) subsets play different AZD9291 purchase roles in inflammatory response and tissue remodelling.
The aim of this study was to investigate how allergen challenge affects the number of circulating PBMs in Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) allergic patients (Dp-APs). Among 34 Dp-APs challenged, in 22 patients significant bronchoconstriction was demonstrated [responders (Rs)], while in 12, only upper respiratory symptoms were seen [non-responders (NRs)]. Twelve healthy, non-atopic subjects were used as controls (HCs). Expression of CD14, CD16 and CCR4 was evaluated by flow cytometry on the whole-blood samples before (T0), 6 h (T6) and 24 h (T24) after the challenge. Plasma concentrations of CCL2, CX3CL1 and CCL17 were evaluated using ELISA. At T0, the mean percentage of CD14++ CD16+ PBMs in Rs (35.4%; 95%CI 26.9–43.9%) was significantly greater than in HCs (14.6%; 95%CI 7.3–21.8%; P = 0.006) and in NRs (17.5%; 95%CI 9.6–25.4%; P = 0.001). The baseline number of CD14++ CD16+ PBMs correlated with airway hyper responsiveness (AHR) (r = −0.507; 95%CI −0.834 to −0.432, P < 0.001). At T24, the number of CD14++ CD16+ PBMs significantly decreased in Rs but not in NRs and the numbers inversely correlated with plasma CCL17 concentration.