“Purpose: To report the clinical efficacy and intermediate

“Purpose: To report the clinical efficacy and intermediate-term functional outcome after laparoscopic anatrophic nephrolithotomy (LAN) as an alternative treatment modality for complete staghorn renal stone.\n\nPatients and Methods: The demographic and perioperative parameters as well as the intermediate outcome of 10 adults (9 men) who underwent transperitoneal LAN for complete staghorn renal stone were analyzed. Functional imaging studies consisted of intravenous urography (IVU) and technetium-99 dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy (99Tc-DMSA) renal scan done before the operation and at the last follow-up visit.\n\nResults: Mean age of patients was 48.7

years (range 37-64 years). Mean stone size was 67.3 mm (50-90 mm). Mean

Prexasertib operative time was 192 minutes (110-240 min), and mean warm ischemia time was 32.8 minutes (15-40 min). A few hours after laparoscopy, one patient underwent splenectomy because TGF-beta inhibitor of significant hemorrhage from a splenic laceration (grade IIIb complication). During the follow-up period early after the operation, we detected an 8-mm lower caliceal stone and a 25-mm midcaliceal stone in one patient each (stone-free rate: 80%). After a mean follow-up of 11.9 months (6-19 mos), 85.5% of corresponding renal unit function was preserved; however, there was a significant mean decrease in 99Tc-DMSA uptake from 48.4% +/- 8.83 before surgery to 41.4% +/- 13.98 afterward (-7% +/- 6.53; P = 0.008). Nevertheless, renal units were completely functional at follow-up IVU with a significant improvement in obstruction in all patients.\n\nConclusion: LAN is an alternative minimally invasive approach for

one-session management of patients with complete staghorn renal stone. It offers an acceptable rate of stone clearance and operative complications but does incur a minimal loss of function in the affected kidney.”
“Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was recently proposed for the treatment of epilepsy. However, the electrode arrangement for this case is debated. This paper analyzes the influence of the position of the anodal electrode on the electric field in the brain. The simulation shows that moving the anode from scalp to shoulder does influence the electric field www.selleckchem.com/products/pci-34051.html not only in the cortex, but also in deeper brain regions. The electric field decreases dramatically in the brain area without epileptiform activity.”
“Objectives: The aim of this study is to perform a comparative costs analysis of radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) and robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RAP) for clinically localized prostate cancer and to determine whether to expand the use of RAP or to continue with conventional RRP in Teaching Hospital San Giovanni Battista Turin Italy.\n\nMethods: A cohort study was carried out comprising consecutive patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.

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