Most of the lakes emitted CO2 during winter (median rates ranging

Most of the lakes emitted CO2 during winter (median rates ranging 300-1,900 mg C m(-2) day(-1)), and less CO2 during summer or, in the case of some of the highly eutrophic lakes, retained CO2 during summer. We found that seasonal CO2 fluxes were strongly negatively correlated with pH (r = -0.65, P < 0.01), which in turn was correlated with chlorophyll a concentrations selleck kinase inhibitor (r = 0.48, P < 0.01). Our analysis suggests that lake trophic status (a proxy for pelagic production) interacts with the lake

ANC to drive the seasonal dynamics of CO2 fluxes, largely by changing pH and thereby the equilibrium of the free CO2 and bicarbonate relation. Long-term observations from four lakes, which have all undergone a period of oligotrophication during the past two decades, provide further evidence that CO2 efflux generally increases as trophic status decreases, as a consequence of decreased pH. Across these four lakes, the annual average CO2 emission has increased by 32% during the past two decades, thus, demonstrating the strong link between lake trophic status and CO2 flux.”

nuclear foci of phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma H2AX) are frequently used as a marker for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) following ionizing radiation (IR). However, recent studies reported that gamma H2AX foci do not necessarily correlate selleck with DSBs under other conditions. We showed that gamma H2AX foci induced by oxidative stress in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated cells displayed several different features from those induced by IR. The magnitude of gamma H2AX induction was heterogeneous among H2O2-treated

cells. Some cells expressed small discrete gamma H2AX foci, whereas others expressed a gross gamma H2AX signal that was distributed throughout the nucleus. Oxidative stress-induced gamma H2AX was eliminated in DSB repair-deficient mutant cells as efficiently as in wild-type cells and was not necessarily accompanied by phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia VS-4718 mw mutated (ATM) or 53BP1 foci. Analyses using specific inhibitors showed that ATM-and Rad3-related (ATR), rather than ATM, was the prominent kinase mediating the oxidative stress response. These results suggest that a major fraction of gamma H2AX induced by oxidative stress is not associated with DSBs. Single-stranded DNA arisen from stalled replication forks can cause the ATR-mediated induction of gamma H2AX. However, oxidative stress appeared to induce gamma H2AX in both S-and non-S-phase cells. These results suggest that there may be another pathway leading to the ATR-mediated induction of gamma H2AX in non-S-phase cells without DSBs.”
“Regulatory authorities admit clinical studies with an initial enrichment phase to select patients that respond to treatment before randomization (Enriched Design Studies; EDSs). The trial period aims to prevent long-term drug exposure risks in patients with limited chances of improvement while optimizing costs.

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